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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2020

List of Tables

open Population
Table POP1. Child population: Number of children (in millions) ages 0–17 in the United States by age, 1950–2019 and projected 2020–2050
Table POP2. Children as a percentage of the population: Persons in selected age groups as a percentage of the total U.S. population, and children ages 0–17 as a percentage of the dependent population, 1950–2019 and projected 2020–2050
Table POP3. Race and Hispanic origin composition: Percentage of U.S. children ages 0–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2019 and projected 2020–2050
open Family and Social Environment
Table FAM1.A. Family structure and children's living arrangements: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household and race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2019
Table FAM1.B. Family structure and children's living arrangements: Detailed living arrangements of children by gender, race and Hispanic origin, age, parent's education, and poverty status, 2019
Table FAM2.A. Births to unmarried women: Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2018
Table FAM2.B. Births to unmarried women: Percentage of all births that are to unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2018
Table FAM3.A. Child care: Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, by type of primary care arrangement, selected years 1995–2016
Table FAM3.B. Child care: Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, in center-based care arrangements by child and family characteristics and region, selected years 1995–2016
Table FAM4. Children of at least one foreign-born parent: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, parent's education, poverty status, and other characteristics, selected years 1994–2019
Table FAM5. Language spoken at home and difficulty speaking English: Number of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home by language spoken and ability to speak English, and the percentages of those speaking a language other than English at home and those with difficulty speaking English by selected characteristics, selected years 1979–2018
Table FAM6. Adolescent births: Birth rates by race and Hispanic origin and mother's age, 1980–2018
Table FAM7.A. Child maltreatment: Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by selected characteristics, 2008–2018
Table FAM7.B. Child maltreatment: Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type and age, 2018
open Economic Circumstances
Table ECON1.A. Child poverty: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living below selected poverty thresholds by selected characteristics, 1980–2018
Table ECON1.B. Income distribution: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty threshold, 1980–2018
Table ECON1.C. Supplemental poverty measure: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2018
Table ECON2. Secure parental employment: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year-round, full time by family structure, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and age, 1980–2018
Table ECON3. Food insecurity: Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by selected characteristics and severity of food insecurity, selected years 1995–2018
open Health Care
Table HC1. Health insurance coverage: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by health insurance coverage status at time of interview and selected characteristics, 1993–2018
Table HC2. Usual source of health care: Percentage of children ages 0–17 with no usual source of health care by age, type of health insurance, and poverty status, 1993–2018
Table HC3.A. Immunization: Percentage of children ages 19–35 months vaccinated for selected diseases by poverty status and race and Hispanic origin, 1996–2017
Table HC3.B. Immunization: Percentage of adolescents ages 13–17 years vaccinated for selected diseases by poverty status and race and Hispanic origin, 2006–2018
Table HC4.A. Oral health: Percentage of children ages 2–17 with a dental visit in the past year by age and selected characteristics, 1997–2018
Table HC4.B. Oral health: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with untreated dental caries (cavities) by age, poverty status, and race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1988–1994 through 2015–2016
open Physical Environment and Safety
Table PHY1. Outdoor air quality: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2018
Table PHY2.A. Secondhand smoke: Percentage of children ages 4–17 with specified blood cotinine levels by age and race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1988–1994 through 2015–2016
Table PHY2.B. Secondhand smoke: Percentage of children ages 4–17 with any detectable blood cotinine level by age, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status, 2015–2016
Table PHY3. Drinking water quality: Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2018
Table PHY4.A. Lead in the blood of children: Selected blood lead levels of children ages 1–5, selected years 1976–1980 through 2013–2016
Table PHY4.B. Lead in the blood of children: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL by race and Hispanic origin and poverty status, 1999–2004, 2005–2010, and 2011–2016
Table PHY5. Housing problems: Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2017
Table PHY6. Youth victims of serious violent crimes: Rate and number of victimizations for youth ages 12–17 by age, race and Hispanic origin, and gender, 1980–2018
Table PHY7.A. Child injury and mortality: Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–14 by leading causes of injury visits, 2000–2001 through 2016–2017
Table PHY7.B. Child injury and mortality: Death rates among children ages 1–14 by gender, race and Hispanic origin, and all causes and all injury causes, 1980–2018
Table PHY8.A. Adolescent injury and mortality: Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury, 2000–2001 through 2016–2017
Table PHY8.B. Adolescent injury and mortality: Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by gender, race and Hispanic origin, and all causes and all injury causes, 1980–2018
open Behavior
Table BEH1. Regular cigarette smoking: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported smoking cigarettes daily in the past 30 days by grade, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2019
Table BEH2. Alcohol use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported having five or more alcoholic beverages in a row in the past 2 weeks by grade, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2019
Table BEH3.A. Illicit drug use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported using illicit drugs in the past 30 days by grade, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2019
Table BEH3.B. Illicit drug use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported smoking marijuana in the past 30 days by grade, 1980–2019
Table BEH4.A. Sexual activity: Sexual activity: Percentage of high school students who reported ever having had sexual intercourse by gender, race and Hispanic origin, and grade, selected years 1991–2019
Table BEH4.B. Sexual activity: Among those who reported having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months, the percentage of high school students who reported use of birth control pills to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse by gender, race and Hispanic origin, and grade, selected years 1991–2019
Table BEH4.C. Sexual activity: Among those who reported having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months, the percentage of high school students who reported condom use during the last sexual intercourse by gender, race and Hispanic origin, and grade, selected years 1991–2019
Table BEH5. Youth perpetrators of serious violent crimes: Rate and number of serious violent crimes by youth ages 12–17, 1980–2018
open Education
Table ED1. Family reading to young children: Percentage of children ages 3–5 who were read to three or more times in the last week by a family member by child and family characteristics and region, selected years 1993–2016
Table ED2.A/B. Mathematics and reading achievement: Average mathematics scale scores of 4th, 8th, and 12th graders by child and family characteristics, selected years 1990–2019
Table ED2.C. Mathematics and reading achievement: Average reading scale scores of 4th, 8th, and 12th graders by child and family characteristics, selected years 1992–2019
Table ED3.A. High school academic coursetaking: Percentage of public high school students enrolled in selected secondary mathematics courses by race and Hispanic origin and gender, 2013–14
Table ED3.B. High school academic coursetaking: Percentage of public high school students enrolled in selected secondary science courses by race and Hispanic origin and gender, 2013–14
Table ED4. High school completion: Percentage of young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018
Table ED5.A. Youth neither enrolled in school nor working: Percentage of youth ages 16–19 who are neither enrolled in school nor working by age, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, 1985–2019
Table ED5.B. Youth enrolled in school and working: Percentage of youth ages 16–19 who are enrolled in school and working by age, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1985–2019
Table ED5.C. Youth school enrollment and working status: Percentage of youth ages 16–19 by age, school enrollment and working status, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1985–2019
Table ED6. College enrollment: Percentage of high school completers who were enrolled in college the October immediately after completing high school by gender and race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018
open Health
Table HEALTH1.A. Preterm birth and low birthweight: Percentage of infants born preterm by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1990–2018
Table HEALTH1.B. Preterm birth and low birthweight: Percentage of infants born with low birthweight by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1980–2018
Table HEALTH2. Infant mortality: Death rates among infants by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1983–2018
Table HEALTH3.A. Emotional and behavioral difficulties: Percentage of children ages 4–17 reported by a parent to have serious or minor difficulties with emotions, concentration, behavior, or getting along with other people by selected characteristics, 2001–2018
Table HEALTH3.B. Emotional and behavioral difficulties: Percentage of children ages 4–17 with serious or minor emotional or behavioral difficulties who received services by type of service, 2001–2018
Table HEALTH4.A. Adolescent depression: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who had at least one Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the past year by age, gender, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status, 2004–2018
Table HEALTH4.B. Adolescent depression: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 with at least one Adolescent depression: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 with at least one Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the past year who received treatment for depression by age, gender, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status, 2004–2018
Table HEALTH4.C. Adolescent depression: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who had at least one Major Depressive Episode (MDE) with severe impairment in the past year by age, gender, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty status, 2004–2018
Table HEALTH5. Activity limitation: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with activity limitation resulting from one or more chronic health conditions by gender, poverty status, and race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1997–2018
Table HEALTH6. Diet quality: Average diet quality scores using the Healthy Eating Index–2015 (HEI–2015) for children ages 2–17 by age group, 2015–2016
Table HEALTH7. Obesity: Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by age, race and Hispanic origin, and gender, selected years 1976–1980 through 2015–2018
Table HEALTH8.A. Asthma: Percentage of children ages 0–17 with asthma, 1997–2018
Table HEALTH8.B. Asthma: Percentage of children ages 0–17 who currently have asthma by age, poverty status, race and Hispanic origin, and area of residence, 2001–2018
open Brief
Table BRIEF1. Race and Hispanic origin composition: Percentage of children ages 0–17 in the United States by race, Hispanic origin, and metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF2. Adolescent births: Birth rates for females ages 15–19 by race and Hispanic origin and metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF3. Child maltreatment: Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by age and metropolitan status, 2008–2018
Table BRIEF4. Child maltreatment: Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type and metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF5. Child poverty: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race, Hispanic origin, and metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF6. Food insecurity: Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by race and Hispanic origin, metropolitan status, and severity of food insecurity, selected years 1995–2018
Table BRIEF7. Health insurance coverage: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by health insurance status at time of interview and metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF8. Oral health–Dental visits: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with a dental visit in the past year by metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF9. Housing problems: Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems, by metropolitan status, 2017
Table BRIEF10. Child and adolescent mortality: Death rates among children and adolescents ages 1–19 by age, cause of death, and metropolitan status, 2018
Table BRIEF11. Regular cigarette smoking: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported smoking cigarettes daily in the past 30 days by grade and metropolitan status, 2019
Table BRIEF12. Alcohol use: Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported having five or more alcoholic beverages in a row in the past 2 weeks by grade and metropolitan status, 2019
Table BRIEF13. High school completion: Percentage of young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school by metropolitan status, 2010–2018
Table BRIEF14. Infant mortality: Death rates among infants by race and Hispanic origin of mother and metropolitan status, 2017–2018
Table BRIEF15. Adolescent depression: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who had at least one Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the past year by age, gender, and metropolitan status, 2004–2018
Table BRIEF16. Adolescent depression: Percentage of receiving treatment for depression among youth ages 12–17 with at least one major depressive episode in the past year by age, gender, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and metropolitan status, 2004–2018
Table BRIEF17. Adolescent depression: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who had at least one Major Depressive Episode (MDE) with severe impairment in the past year by age, gender, and metropolitan status, 2004–2018
Table BRIEF18. Obesity: Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by metropolitan status, 2013–2018
Table BRIEF19. Asthma: Percentage of children ages 0–17 who currently have asthma by metropolitan status, 2016–2018