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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2020

List of Figures

open Population
Figure POP1.Number of children ages 0–17 in the United States, 1950–2019 and projected 2020–2050
Figure POP2.Children ages 0–17 and adults ages 65 and older as a percentage of the U.S. population, 1950–2019 and projected 2020–2050
Figure POP3.Percentage of children ages 0–17 in the United States by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2019 and projected 2020–2050
open Family and Social Environment
Figure FAM1.A.Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 1980–2019
Figure FAM1.B.Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 2019
Figure FAM2.A.Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2018
Figure FAM2.B.Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 1980 and 2018
Figure FAM3.A.Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, by type of primary care arrangement, selected years 1995–2016
Figure FAM3.B.Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet in kindergarten with employed mothers, in center-based care arrangements by poverty status, selected years 1995–2016
Figure FAM4.Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 1994–2019
Figure FAM5.Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English or live in a limited English-speaking household, selected years 1979–2018
Figure FAM6.Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 1990–2018
Figure FAM7.A.Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by age, 2008–2018
Figure FAM7.B.Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type, 2018
open Economic Circumstances
Figure ECON1.A.Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018
Figure ECON1.B.Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty line, 1980–2018
Figure ECON1.C.Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2018
Figure ECON2.Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year-round, full time by family structure, 1980–2018
Figure ECON3.Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by poverty status, selected years 1995–2018
open Health Care
Figure HC1.Percentage of children ages 0–17 by health insurance coverage status at the time of interview, 1993–2018
Figure HC2.Percentage of children ages 0–17 with no usual source of health care by type of health insurance, 1993–2018
Figure HC3.A.Percentage of children ages 19–35 months with completed 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 combined series of vaccinations by poverty status, 2009–2017
Figure HC3.B.Percentage of adolescents ages 13–17 years with the indicated vaccines and doses, 2006–2018
Figure HC4.A.Percentage of children ages 5–17 with a dental visit in the past year by age and poverty status, 1997–2018
Figure HC4.B.Percentage of children ages 5–17 with untreated dental caries (cavities) by age and poverty status, selected years 1988–1994 through 2015–2016
open Physical Environment and Safety
Figure PHY1.Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards, 1999–2018
Figure PHY2.A.Percentage of children ages 4–11 with specified blood cotinine levels, selected years 1988–1994 through 2015–2016
Figure PHY2.B.Percentage of children ages 4–11 with any detectable blood cotinine level by race and Hispanic origin and poverty status, 2015–2016
Figure PHY3.Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2018
Figure PHY4.A.Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, 2003–2006, 2007–2010, and 2013–2016
Figure PHY4.B.Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL by race and Hispanic origin and poverty status, 2011–2016
Figure PHY5.A.Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2017
Figure PHY5.B.Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported severe housing cost burdens, selected years 1978–2017
Figure PHY6.Rate of serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 by gender, 1980–2018
Figure PHY7.A.Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by leading causes of injury, 2016–2017
Figure PHY7.B.Death rates among children ages 1–14 by all causes, all injury causes, and age group, 1980–2018
Figure PHY7.C.Death rates among children ages 1–14 by cause of death and age group, 2017
Figure PHY8.A.Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury, 2016–2017
Figure PHY8.B.Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by all causes and all injury causes and selected mechanisms of injury, 1980–2018
Figure PHY8.C.Injury mortality rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by manner of intent and gender, 2018
open Behavior
Figure BEH1.Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported smoking cigarettes daily in the past 30 days by grade, 1980–2019
Figure BEH2.Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported having five or more alcoholic beverages in a row in the past 2 weeks by grade, 1980–2019
Figure BEH3.A.Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported using illicit drugs in the past 30 days by grade, 1980–2019
Figure BEH3.B.Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported smoking marijuana in the past 30 days by grade, 1980–2019
Figure BEH4.A.Percentage of high school students who reported ever having had sexual intercourse by grade, selected years 1991–2019
Figure BEH4.B.Among students who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months, the percentage who reported birth control pill use before or condom use during their last sexual intercourse, selected years 1991–2019
Figure BEH5.A.Rate of serious violent crimes by youth perpetrators ages 12–17, 1980–2018
Figure BEH5.B.Percentage of youth-perpetrated serious violence involving multiple offenders ages 12–17, 1980–2018
open Education
Figure ED1.Percentage of children ages 3–5 who were read to three or more times in the last week by a family member by mother's education, selected years 1993–2016
Figure ED2.A.Average mathematics scale scores for students in Grades 4 and 8, selected years 1990–2019
Figure ED2.B.Average mathematics scale scores for students in Grade 12 by race and Hispanic origin, 2005, 2013, and 2015
Figure ED2.C.Average reading scale scores for students in Grades 4, 8, and 12, selected years 1992–2019
Figure ED3.Percentage of public school students enrolled in selected secondary mathematics and science courses, 2013–14
Figure ED4.Percentage of young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018
Figure ED5.Percentage of youth ages 16–19 who are neither enrolled in school nor working by age and race and Hispanic origin, 1985–2019
Figure ED6.Percentage of high school completers who were enrolled in college the October immediately after completing high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018
open Health
Figure HEALTH1.A.Percentage of infants born preterm and percentage of infants born with low birthweight, 2007–2018
Figure HEALTH1.B.Percentage of infants born with low birthweight by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 2016 and 2018
Figure HEALTH2.Death rates among infants by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1999–2018
Figure HEALTH3.Percentage of children ages 4–17 reported by a parent to have serious emotional or behavioral difficulties by age and gender, 2001–2018
Figure HEALTH4.A.Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who experienced a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the past year by age and gender, 2004–2018
Figure HEALTH4.B.Percentage of those receiving treatment for depression among youth ages 12–17 with at least one MDE in the past year by gender, 2004–2018
Figure HEALTH5.Percentage of children ages 5–17 with activity limitation resulting from one or more chronic health conditions by gender, selected years 1997–2018
Figure HEALTH6.Average diet quality scores using the Healthy Eating Index–2015 for children ages 2–17 by age group, 2015–2016
Figure HEALTH7.Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1976–1980 through 2015–2018
Figure HEALTH8.Percentage of children ages 0–17 with asthma, 1997–2018
open 2020 Brief
Figure 1.Percentage of children ages 0–17 in the United States by metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 2.Percentage of children ages 0–17 in the United States by race, Hispanic origin, and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 3.Birth rates for females ages 15–19 by race and Hispanic origin and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 4.Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 5.Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 6.Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race, Hispanic origin, and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 7.Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by metropolitan status, 2017–2018
Figure 8.Percentage of children ages 0–17 by health insurance coverage status at the time of interview and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 9.Percentage of children ages 5–17 with a dental visit in the past year by metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 10.Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that have housing problems by metropolitan status, 2017
Figure 11.Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that have moderate or severe housing cost burdens by metropolitan status, 2017
Figure 12.Death rates among children ages 1–4 by selected leading causes of death and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 13.Death rates among children ages 5–14 by selected leading causes of death and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 14.Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by selected leading causes of death and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 15.Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported smoking cigarettes daily in the past 30 days by metropolitan status, 2019
Figure 16.Percentage of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who reported having five or more alcoholic beverages in a row in the past 2 weeks by metropolitan status, 2019
Figure 17.Percentage of young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school by metropolitan status, 2010 and 2018
Figure 18.Death rates among infants by race and Hispanic origin of mother and metropolitan status, 2017–2018
Figure 19.Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who experienced a major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year by gender and metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 20.Percentage of those receiving treatment for depression among youth ages 12–17 with at least one major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year by metropolitan status, 2018
Figure 21.Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by metropolitan status, 2013–2018
Figure 22.Percentage of children ages 0–17 who currently have asthma by metropolitan status, 2016–2018