ChildStats.gov—Forum on Child and Family Statistics
faces of children
Home  |  About the Forum  |  Publications  |  Help
Search

America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2019

America's Children at a Glance

To open each section click on the setion name next to the arrow. To close each section click the section name again.

  Previous Value (Year) Most Recent Value (Year) Change Between Years
close Demographic Background
Child population1
Children ages 0–17 in the United States 73.6 million (2017) 73.4 million (2018) Arrow pointing down
Children as a percentage of the population1
Children ages 0–17 in the United States 22.6% (2017) 22.4% (2018) Arrow pointing down
Racial and ethnic composition1
Children ages 0–17 by race and Hispanic origin2
White, non-Hispanic 50.7% (2017) 50.3% (2018) Arrow pointing down
Black, non-Hispanic 13.7% (2017) 13.7% (2018) NS
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 0.8% (2017) 0.8% (2018) NS
Asian, non-Hispanic 5.0% (2017) 5.1% (2018) Arrow pointing up
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 0.2% (2017) 0.2% (2018) NS
Two or more races, non-Hispanic 4.3% (2017) 4.3% (2018) NS
Hispanic 25.2% (2017) 25.5% (2018) Arrow pointing up
open Family and Social Environment
Family structure and children's living arrangements
Children ages 0–17 living with two married parents 65% (2017) 65% (2018) NS
Births to unmarried women
Births to unmarried women ages 15–44 42 per 1,000 (2016) 41 per 1,000 (2017) Arrow pointing down
Births to unmarried women among all births 40% (2016) 40% (2017) NS
Child care
Children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, whose primary child care arrangement was nonparental care on a regular basis 88% (2012) 85% (2016) NS
Children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, who were in center-based care arrangements 67% (2012) 70% (2016) NS
Children of at least one foreign-born parent
Children ages 0–17 living with at least one foreign-born parent 25% (2017) 26% (2018) NS
Language spoken at home and difficulty speaking English
Children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home 22.5% (2016) 22.5% (2017) NS
Children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English 4.5% (2016) 4.4% (2017) NS
Adolescent births
Births to females ages 15–17 9 per 1,000 (2016) 8 per 1,000 (2017) Arrow pointing down
Child maltreatment1
Substantiated reports of maltreatment of children ages 0–17 9.1 per 1,000 (2016) 9.1 per 1,000 (2017) NS
open Economic Circumstances
Child poverty and family income
Children ages 0–17 in poverty 18% (2016) 17% (2017) NS
Children living in families with medium income 29% (2016) 29% (2017) NS
Secure parental employment
Children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year round, full-time 77% (2016) 78% (2017) Arrow pointing up
Food insecurity
Children ages 0–17 in households classified by USDA as "food insecure" 18% (2016) 17% (2017) NS
open Health Care
Health insurance coverage
Children ages 0–17 who were uninsured at the time of interview 5% (2016) 5% (2017) NS
Usual source of health care
Children ages 0–17 with no usual source of health care 5% (2016) 4% (2017) NS
Immunization
Children ages 19–35 months with the 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 combined series 71% (2016) 70% (2017) NS
Oral health
Children ages 5–17 with a dental visit in the past year 89% (2016) 89% (2017) NS
open Physical Environment and Safety
Outdoor air quality
Children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards 62% (2016) 62% (2017) NS
Secondhand smoke
Children ages 4–11 with any detectable blood cotinine level, a measure for recent exposure to secondhand smoke 40% (2011–2012) 37% (2013–2014) NS
Drinking water quality
Children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards 5% (2016) 6% (2017) NS
Lead in the blood of children
Children ages 1–5 with blood lead greater than or equal to 5 µg/dL 2.6% (2007–2010) 0.9% (2013–2016) Arrow pointing down
Housing problems
Households with children ages 0–17 reporting shelter cost burden, crowding, and/or physically inadequate housing 39% (2015) 39% (2017) NS
Youth victims of serious violent crimes
Serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 7 per 1,000 (2015) 8 per 1,000 (2017) NS
Child injury and mortality
Injury deaths of children ages 1–4 10 per 100,000 (2016) 10 per 100,000 (2017) NS
Injury deaths of children ages 5–14 6 per 100,000 (2016) 6 per 100,000 (2017) NS
Adolescent injury and mortality
Injury deaths of adolescents ages 15–19 39 per 100,000 (2016) 40 per 100,000 (2017) NS
open Behavior
Regular cigarette smoking
Students who reported smoking daily in the past 30 days
8th grade 1% (2017) 1% (2018) NS
10th grade 2% (2017) 2% (2018) NS
12th grade 4% (2017) 4% (2018) NS
Alcohol use
Students who reported having 5 or more alcoholic beverages in a row in the past 2 weeks
8th grade 4% (2017) 4% (2018) NS
10th grade 10% (2017) 9% (2018) NS
12th grade 17% (2017) 14% (2018) Arrow pointing down
Illicit drug use
Students who reported using illicit drugs in the past 30 days
8th grade 7% (2017) 7% (2018) NS
10th grade 17% (2017) 18% (2018) NS
12th grade 25% (2017) 24% (2018) NS
Sexual activity
High school students who reported ever having had sexual intercourse 41% (2015) 40% (2017) NS
Youth perpetrators of serious violent crimes
Youth offenders ages 12–17 involved in serious violent crimes 8 per 1,000 (2015) 9 per 1,000 (2017) NS
open Education
Family reading to young children
Children ages 3–5 who were read to 3 or more times in the last week 83% (2012) 81% (2016) NS
Mathematics and reading achievement
Average mathematics scale score of
4th-graders (0–500 scale) 240 (2015) 240 (2017) NS
8th-graders (0–500 scale) 282 (2015) 283 (2017) NS
12th-graders (0–300 scale) 153 (2013) 152 (2015) Arrow pointing down
Average reading scale score of
4th-graders (0–500 scale) 223 (2015) 222 (2017) NS
8th-graders (0–500 scale) 265 (2015) 267 (2015) Arrow pointing up
12th-graders (0–500 scale) 288 (2013) 287 (2015) NS
High school completion
Young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school 93% (2016) 93% (2017) NS
Youth neither enrolled in school3 nor working
Youth ages 16–19 who are neither enrolled in school nor working 8% (2017) 8% (2018) NS
College enrollment
Recent high school completers enrolled in college the October immediately after completing high school 70% (2016) 67% (2017) NS
open Health
Preterm birth and low birthweight
Infants less than 37 weeks of gestation at birth 9.8% (2016) 9.9% (2017) Arrow pointing up
Infants weighing less than 5 lb. 8 oz. at birth 8.2% (2015) 8.3% (2017) Arrow pointing up
Infant mortality
Deaths before first birthday 6 per 1,000 (2015) 6 per 1,000 (2016) NS
Emotional and behavioral difficulties
Children ages 4–17 reported by a parent to have serious difficulties with emotions, concentration, behavior, or getting along with other people 5% (2016) 6% (2017) NS
Adolescent depression
Youth ages 12–17 with past-year Major Depressive Episode 13% (2016) 13% (2017) NS
Activity limitation
Children ages 5–17 with activity limitation resulting from one or more chronic health conditions 11% (2016) 11% (2017) NS
Obesity
Children ages 6–17 who had obesity 19% (2009–2012) 19% (2013–2016) NS
Asthma
Children ages 0–17 who currently have asthma 8% (2016) 8% (2017) NS
NS – No statistically significant change      Arrow pointing up –Statistically significant increase      Arrow pointing down – Statistically significant decrease
1 Population estimates are not sample derived and thus not subject to statistical testing. Change between years identifies differences in the proportionate size of these estimates.
2 Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding.
3 School refers to high school and college.