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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2020

Health Care Figures

Figure HC1: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by health insurance coverage status at the time of interview, 1993–2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by health insurance coverage status at the time of interview, 1993–2018

NOTE: A child was considered to be uninsured if he or she did not have any private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), a state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plan, or a military plan. A child was also defined as uninsured if he or she had only Indian Health Service coverage or had only a private plan that paid for one type of service such as accidents or dental care. Private health insurance includes children covered by any comprehensive private insurance plan (including health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations). These plans include those obtained through an employer, purchased directly, purchased through local or community programs, or purchased through the Health Insurance Marketplace or a state-based exchange. Public health insurance includes children who do not have private coverage, but who have Medicaid or other state-sponsored health plans, including CHIP.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure HC2: Percentage of children ages 0–17 with no usual source of health care by type of health insurance, 1993–2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 with no usual source of health care by type of health insurance, 1993–2018

NOTE: A child was considered to be uninsured if he or she did not have any private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plan, or a military plan. A child was also defined as uninsured if he or she had only Indian Health Service coverage or had only a private plan that paid for one type of service such as accidents or dental care. Private health insurance includes children covered by any comprehensive private insurance plan (including health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations). These plans include those obtained through an employer, purchased directly, purchased through local or community programs, or purchased through the Health Insurance Marketplace or a state-based exchange. Public health insurance includes children who do not have private coverage, but who have Medicaid or other state-sponsored health plans, including CHIP. Usual source of health care is based on the following question: "Is there a place that [child's name] USUALLY goes when [he/she] is sick or needs advice about [his/her] health?" A follow-up question specifies that these places may be a walk-in clinic, doctor's office, clinic, health center, health maintenance organization, outpatient clinic, or military or Veterans Administration health care facility. Emergency rooms are excluded as a usual source of care. A break is shown in the lines because in 1997 the National Health Interview Survey was redesigned. Data for 1997–2018 are not strictly comparable with earlier data.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure HC3.A: Percentage of children ages 19–35 months with completed 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 combined series of vaccinations by poverty status, 2009–2017
Percentage of children ages 19–35 months with completed 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 combined series of vaccinations by poverty status, 2009–2017

NOTE: The 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series consists of 4 doses (or more) of diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis (DTP) vaccines, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT), or diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and any acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines; 3 doses (or more) of poliovirus vaccines; 1 dose (or more) of any measles-containing vaccine; the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines (3 or 4 doses, depending on product type); 3 doses (or more) of hepatitis B vaccines; 1 dose (or more) of varicella vaccine; and 4 doses (or more) of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). The recommended immunization schedule for children is available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/easy-to-read/child.html. Poverty status is based on family income and household size using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds for the year of data collection.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey—Child.

Figure HC3.B: Percentage of adolescents ages 13–17 years with the indicated vaccines and doses, 2006–2018
Percentage of adolescents ages 13–17 years with the indicated vaccines and doses, 2006–2018

NOTE: Data collection for the 2006 and 2007 survey was only performed during the fourth quarter. The routine vaccination recommendation for children beginning at ages 11–12 years includes tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines, meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccines (1 dose each), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines (2 or 3 doses, depending on age at HPV vaccine initiation and interval between doses). The recommended immunization schedule for adolescents is available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/easy-to-read/preteen-teen.html.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Immunization Survey—Teen.

Figure HC4.A: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with a dental visit in the past year by age and poverty status, 1997–2018
Percentage of children ages 5–17 with a dental visit in the past year by age and poverty status, 1997–2018

NOTE: From 1997 to 2000, children were identified as having a dental visit in the past year by asking parents "About how long has it been since your child last saw or talked to a dentist?" In 2001 and later years, the question was "About how long has it been since your child last saw a dentist?" Parents were directed to include all types of dentists, such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, and all other dental specialists, as well as dental hygienists.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure HC4.B: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with untreated dental caries (cavities) by age and poverty status, selected years 1988–1994 through 2015–2016
Percentage of children ages 5–17 with untreated dental caries (cavities) by age and poverty status, selected years 1988–1994 through 2015–2016

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.