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America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2021

Family and Social Environment Figures

Indicator FAM1.A: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 2010–2020
Indicator FAM1A: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 2010–2020

NOTE: Data for 2020 exclude about 210,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Indicator FAM1.B: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 2020
Indicator FAM1B: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 2020

a Children living with two stepparents are included here, in either of the categories in which one parent is biological/adoptive and one is a stepparent.

NOTE: Data for 2020 exclude about 210,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. Prior to 2007, a second parent could be identified only if he or she was married to the first parent on the survey record. Prior to 2007, children with two unmarried parents in the household may be identified as "mother only" or "father only." Starting in 2007, a second parent identifier permits identification of two coresident parents, even if the parents are not married to each other.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Indicator FAM2.A: Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 2009–2019
Indicator FAM2.A: Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 2009–2019

NOTE: Rates for women ages 40–44 are computed by dividing the number of births to unmarried women age 40 and over by the population of unmarried women ages 40–44.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator FAM2.B: Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 2009 and 2019
Indicator FAM2.B: Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 2009 and 2019

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator FAM3.A: Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, by type of primary care arrangement, selected years 1995–2019
Indicator FAM3.A: Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, by type of primary care arrangement, selected years 1995–2019

a Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.

b Children who spent an equal number of hours per week in multiple nonparental care arrangements.

NOTE: Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present. A child's nonparental primary care arrangement is the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week. Prior to 2012, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered by telephone with an interviewer. NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, all sampled households received initial contact by mail. While the majority of respondents completed paper questionnaires, a small sample of cases were part of a web experiment with mailed invitations to complete the survey online. For NHES:2019, the majority of data were collected using a web-based survey instrument that respondents accessed with credentials they received in a mailed invitation. Paper surveys were used for nonresponse follow-up and for a small experiment. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012, 2016, 2019, and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.

Indicator FAM3.B: Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, in center-based care arrangements for any amount of time by poverty status, selected years 1995–2019
Indicator FAM3.B: Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, in center-based care arrangements for any amount of time by poverty status, selected years 1995–2019

NOTE: Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present. Center-based programs included day care centers, prekindergartens, nursery schools, Head Start programs, and other early childhood education programs. Prior to 2012, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered via telephone with an interviewer. NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, all sampled households received initial contact by mail. While the majority of respondents completed paper questionnaires, a small sample of cases were part of a web experiment with mailed invitations to complete the survey online. For NHES:2019, the majority of data were collected using a web-based survey instrument that respondents accessed with credentials they received in a mailed invitation. Paper surveys were used for nonresponse follow-up and for a small experiment. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012, 2016, 2019, and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.

Indicator FAM4: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 2010–2020
Indicator FAM4: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 2010–2020

NOTE: Data for 2020 exclude the approximately 210,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. Children living in households with no parents present are not shown in this figure but are included in the bases for the percentages. Native-born parents means that all of the parents the child lives with are native born. Foreign born means that one or both of the child's parents are foreign born. Anyone with U.S. citizenship at birth is considered native born, which includes people born in the United States or in U.S. outlying areas and people born abroad with at least one American parent. Foreign-born children with native-born parents are included in the native children with native parents category.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Indicator FAM5: Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English or live in a limited-English-speaking household, 2010–2019
Indicator FAM5: Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English or live in a limited-English-speaking household, 2010–2019

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey.

Indicator FAM6: Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 2009–2019
Indicator FAM6: Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 2009–2019

NOTE: NH = non-Hispanic origin; AIAN = American Indian or Alaska Native; API = Asian or Pacific Islander; NHOPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Starting with 2016 data, race on birth records is available for the entire United States based on the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards and presented as single-race estimates (only one race was reported on the birth certificate). These estimates include separate estimates for Asian, non-Hispanic and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic groups. Data published before 2016 were tabulated according to the 1977 OMB standards and bridged to retain comparability across states as they transitioned from the 1977 standards to those of 1997. Single-race estimates for 2016 and beyond are not completely comparable with bridged-race estimates for earlier years, particularly for smaller race categories. In 2016, the Asian or Pacific Islander group was split into two different race groups: Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. To look at longer trends, bridged-race estimates for the combined Asian or Pacific Islander group also are presented. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator FAM7.A: Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by age, 2008–2019
Indicator FAM7.A: Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by age, 2008–2019

NOTE: The data in this figure are rates of victimization based on investigations and assessments by Child Protective Services that found the child to be a victim of one or more types of maltreatment. The rates are based on unique counts of victims of maltreatment. A unique count includes each child only one time, regardless of the number of times the child was determined to be a victim. Substantiated maltreatment includes the dispositions of substantiated or indicated. This is not comparable to child maltreatment estimates in editions prior to America's Children, 2017, which were based on duplicated rather than unduplicated counts and also included alternative response victims. Alternative response victim is the provision of a response other than an investigation that determines a child was a victim of maltreatment. The number of states reporting may vary from year to year. States vary in their definition of abuse and neglect. Additional technical notes are available in the annual reports titled Child Maltreatment, which are available at https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment.

SOURCE: Administration for Children and Families, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System.

Indicator FAM7.B: Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type, 2019
Indicator FAM7.B: Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type, 2019

NOTE: Percentages for neglect do not include medical neglect. Medical neglect is reported separately. Bars total to more than 100% because a single child may be the victim of multiple kinds of maltreatment. Substantiated maltreatment includes the dispositions of substantiated or indicated. This is a change from estimates in editions prior to America's Children, 2017 when substantiated maltreatment included dispositions of substantiated, indicated, and alternative response victim. Alternative response victim is the provision of a response other than an investigation that determines a child was a victim of maltreatment. Additional technical notes are available in the annual reports titled Child Maltreatment, which are available at https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment.

SOURCE: Administration for Children and Families, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System.