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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2018

Family and Social Environment Figures

Figure FAM1.A: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 1980–2017
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 1980–2017

NOTE: Data for 2017 exclude about 259,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. Prior to 2007, a second parent could only be identified if he or she were married to the first parent on the survey record. Prior to 2007, children with two unmarried parents in the household may be identified as "mother only" or "father only." Starting in 2007, a second parent identifier permits identification of two coresident parents, even if the parents are not married to each other.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure FAM1.B: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by the number of parents present in household, 2017
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by the number of parents present in household, 2017

a Children living with two stepparents are included here, in either of the categories where one parent is biological/adoptive and one is a stepparent.

NOTE: Data for 2017 exclude about 259,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. Prior to 2007, a second parent could only be identified if he or she were married to the first parent on the survey record. Prior to 2007, children with two unmarried parents in the household may be identified as "mother only" or "father only." Starting in 2007, a second parent identifier permits identification of two coresident parents, even if the parents are not married to each other.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure FAM2.A: Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2016
Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2016

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure FAM2.B: Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 1980 and 2016
Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 1980 and 2016

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure FAM3.A: Primary child care arrangements for children ages 0–4 with employed mothers, selected years 1985–2011
Primary child care arrangements for children ages 0–4 with employed mothers, selected years 1985–2011

NOTE: The primary arrangement is the arrangement used for the most number of hours per week while the mother worked. Mother and father care each refer to care while the mother worked. Center-based care includes day care centers, nursery schools, preschools, and Head Start programs. Home-based care or other nonrelative care includes family day care providers, babysitters, nannies, friends, neighbors, and other nonrelatives providing care in either the child's or provider's home. Other relatives include siblings and other relatives. Mother care includes care by the mother while she worked. To see trends in individual child care arrangement types, refer to Laughlin, L. (2013). Who's minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Spring 2011. Current Population Reports (P70–135), U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.

Figure FAM3.B: Percentage of children ages 3–6, not yet in kindergarten, in center-based care arrangements by poverty status, selected years 1995–2016
Percentage of children ages 3–6, not yet in kindergarten, in center-based care arrangements by poverty status, selected years 1995–2016

NOTE: Center-based programs included day care centers, prekindergartens, nursery schools, Head Start programs, and other early childhood education programs. Prior to 2012, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered via telephone with an interviewer. NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, all sampled households received initial contact by mail. While the majority of respondents completed paper questionnaires, a small sample of cases was part of a Web experiment with mailed invitations to complete the survey online. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012, 2016, and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change. Some data have been revised from previous publications.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.

Figure FAM3.C: Child care arrangements for grade school children ages 5–14 with employed mothers, 2011
Child care arrangements for grade school children ages 5–14 with employed mothers, 2011

NOTE: The number of children in all arrangements may exceed the total number of children due to the use of multiple arrangements. Mother and father care each refer to care while the mother worked.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.

Figure FAM4: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 1994–2017
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 1994–2017

NOTE: Data for 2017 exclude the nearly 259,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. Children living in households with no parents present are not shown in this figure but are included in the bases for the percentages. Native-born parents means that all of the parents the child lives with are native born. Foreign-born means that one or both of the child's parents are foreign born. Anyone with U.S. citizenship at birth is considered native born, which includes people born in the United States or in U.S. outlying areas and people born abroad with at least one American parent. Foreign-born children with native-born parents are included in the native children with native parents category. Prior to 2007, Current Population Survey (CPS) data identified only one parent on the child's record. This meant that a second parent could only be identified if he or she was married to the first parent. In 2007, a second parent identifier was added to the CPS. This permits identification of two coresident parents, even if the parents are not married to each other.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure FAM5: Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English or live in a limited English-speaking household, selected years 1979–2016
Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English or live in a limited English-speaking household, selected years 1979–2016

NOTE: Numbers from the 1995 and 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS) may reflect changes in the survey because of newly instituted computer-assisted interviewing techniques and/or because of the change in the population controls to the 1990 Census-based estimates, with adjustments. A break is shown in the lines between 1999 and 2000 because data from 1979 to 1999 come from the CPS, while beginning in 2000 the data come from the American Community Survey (ACS). The questions were the same on the CPS and the ACS questionnaires.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey and American Community Survey

Figure FAM6: Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 1990–2016
Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 1990–2016

NOTE: Race refers to mother's race. The 1977 U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. Although state reporting of birth certificate data is transitioning to comply with the 1997 OMB standards for race and ethnicity statistics, data from states reporting multiple races were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 OMB standards for comparability with other states and for trend analysis. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected and reported separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure FAM7.A: Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by age, 2008–2016
Rate of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by age, 2008–2016

NOTE: The data in this figure are rates of victimization based on investigations and assessments by Child Protective Services that found the child to be a victim of one or more types of maltreatment. The rates are based on unique counts of victims of maltreatment. A unique count includes each child only one time regardless of the number of times the child was determined to be a victim. Substantiated maltreatment includes the dispositions of substantiated or indicated. This is not comparable to child maltreatment estimates in editions prior to America's Children 2017, which were based on duplicated rather than unduplicated counts and also included alternative response victims. Alternative response victim is the provision of a response other than an investigation that determines a child was a victim of maltreatment. The number of states reporting may vary from year to year. States vary in their definition of abuse and neglect.

SOURCE: Administration for Children and Families, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System.

Figure FAM7.B: Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type, 2016
Percentage of substantiated maltreatment of children ages 0–17 by maltreatment type, 2016

NOTE: Percentages for neglect do not include medical neglect. Medical neglect is reported separately. Bars total to more than 100 percent because a single child may be victim of multiple kinds of maltreatment. Substantiated maltreatment includes the dispositions of substantiated or indicated. This is a change from estimates in editions prior to America's Children 2017 when substantiated maltreatment included dispositions of substantiated, indicated, and alternative response victim. Alternative response victim is the provision of a response other than an investigation that determines a child was a victim of maltreatment.

SOURCE: Administration for Children and Families, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System.