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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2020

Economic Circumstances Figures

Figure ECON1.A: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2018

NOTE: In 2018, the poverty threshold for a two-parent, two-child family was $25,465. The source of the calendar year 2013 data for this figure is the portion of the 2014 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) sample that received income questions consistent with the 2013 CPS ASEC. Data for calendar year 2014 and onward used the redesigned income questions. Users should use caution when comparing 2013 data to 2014 data. Data for calendar year 2018 and onward used an updated CPS ASEC processing system. Data for years prior to 2018 used the legacy processing system. Users should use caution when comparing 2018 data to previous years.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure ECON1.B: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty line, 1980–2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty line, 1980–2018

NOTE: This graph shows income categories derived from the ratio of a family's income to the family's poverty threshold. In 2018, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $25,465. For example, a family of four with two children would be living below 50% of the poverty threshold if their income was less than $12,733 (50% of $25,465). If the same family's income was at least $25,465 but less than $50,930, the family would be living at 100%–199% of the poverty threshold. The source of the calendar year 2013 data for this figure is the portion of the 2014 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) sample that received income questions consistent with the 2013 CPS ASEC. Data for calendar year 2014 and onward used the redesigned income questions. Users should use caution when comparing 2013 data to 2014 data. Data for calendar year 2018 and onward used an updated CPS ASEC processing system. Data for years prior to 2018 used the legacy processing system. Users should use caution when comparing 2018 data to previous years.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure ECON1.C: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2018

NOTE: The term "White, non-Hispanic" is used to refer to people who reported being White and no other race and who are not Hispanic. The term "Black, non-Hispanic" is used to refer to people who reported being Black or African American and no other race and who are not Hispanic, and the term "Asian, non-Hispanic" is used to refer to people who reported only Asian as their race and who are not Hispanic. The use of single-race populations in this table does not imply that this is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The U.S. Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. From 1980 to 2002, following the 1977 U.S. Office of Management and Budget standards for collecting and presenting data on race, the Current Population Survey (CPS) asked respondents to choose one race from the following: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. An "Other" category was also offered. Beginning in 2003, the CPS allowed respondents to select one or more race categories. People who reported only one race are referred to as the race-alone population. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data for calendar year 2018 and onward used an updated CPS ASEC processing system.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure ECON2: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year-round, full time by family structure, 1980–2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year-round, full time by family structure, 1980–2018

NOTE: Year-round, full-time employment is defined as usually working full time (35 hours or more per week) for 50 to 52 weeks. Beginning in 2018, the definition of married couples in this report includes both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to 2018, married-couple families included opposite-sex married-couple families only. Therefore, 2018 estimates for married-couple families and families maintained by men or women are not strictly comparable to those from prior years because of the change in the definition of marital status.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure ECON3: Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by poverty status, selected years 1995–2018
Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by poverty status, selected years 1995–2018

NOTE: Food-insecure households are those in which either adults or children or both were "food insecure," meaning that, at times, they were unable to acquire adequate food for active, healthy living because the household had insufficient money and other resources for food. Statistics for 1996–1998 and 2000 are omitted because they are not directly comparable with those for other years.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement; tabulated by Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service and Food and Nutrition Service.