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FAM3.B Child care: Percentage of children ages 3–6, not yet in kindergarten, in center-based care arrangements by child and family characteristics and region, selected years 1995–2016

excel icon FAM3B Excel Table
excel icon FAM3B Standard Error Excel Table

Characteristic 1995 2001 2005 2007 2012 2016
Total 55.0 56.3 57.1 55.3 60.6 60.4
Race and Hispanic origina
White, non-Hispanic 56.9 58.9 59.0 58.4 63.0 63.1
Black, non-Hispanic 59.5 63.0 66.5 65.2 68.0 65.9
American Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic
Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 59.4 63.4 73.1 65.1 68.0 63.2
Asian, non-Hispanic 73.7 66.7 71.9 63.8
Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic
Two or more races, non-Hispanic 55.1 63.9 58.3 55.4 53.8 62.3
Hispanic 37.2 39.8 43.5 38.9 51.5 52.3
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty 45.6 47.0 47.1 40.6 45.2 50.3
100%–199% poverty 43.2 48.4 46.6 45.1 51.0 46.1
200% poverty and above 65.8 63.2 66.2 65.3 71.9 70.2
Family type
Two parentsb 54.8 56.5 56.9 55.4 61.4 60.9
Two parents, married 57.3 58.3 56.8 63.6 61.8
Two parents, unmarried 46.4 42.8 39.8 47.3 54.3
One parent 56.0 55.8 57.7 54.3 57.4 61.0
No parents 50.5 55.9 59.6 57.2 64.6 45.8
Mother's highest level of educationc
Less than high school 34.8 38.0 34.9 28.7 41.8 34.9
High school diploma or equivalent 47.6 47.3 48.6 43.1 48.8 55.1
Some college, including vocational/technical/associate's degree 56.8 61.4 56.2 54.4 58.2 57.2
Bachelor's degree or higher 74.5 70.0 72.9 71.3 79.5 75.7
Mother's employment statusc
35 hours or more per week 60.2 62.9 63.7 65.5 67.0 71.9
Less than 35 hours per week 62.1 61.4 60.8 61.6 66.3 62.7
Looking for work 51.8 46.2 42.0 37.8 57.3 45.5
Not in the labor force 46.5 46.9 50.2 43.9 50.9 47.7
Regiond
Northeast 56.3 63.8 67.0 66.3 69.4 68.3
South 58.4 59.1 56.4 55.0 63.4 62.0
Midwest 53.8 55.5 54.4 55.8 58.1 63.3
West 49.9 47.4 54.2 47.6 53.0 51.9
— Not available.
Dagger; Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
a In 1995 and 2001, the 1977 U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. In 2005 and later years, the revised 1997 OMB standards were used. Under these standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. In 2012 and 2016 children reporting as both Asian and Pacific Islander with no other races were included in Two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
b Refers to adults' relationship to child and does not indicate marital status. Data for 2007, 2012, and 2016 include same-sex parents.
c Children without mothers or female guardians in the home are not included in estimates.
d Regions: Northeast includes CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, and VT. South includes AL, AR, DC, DE, fl, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WV. Midwest includes IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, and WI. West includes AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, and WY.
NOTE: Center-based programs include day care centers, prekindergartens, nursery schools, Head Start programs, and other early childhood education programs. Prior to 2012, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered via telephone with an interviewer. NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, all sampled households received initial contact by mail. While the majority of respondents completed paper questionnaires, a small sample of cases was part of a Web experiment with mailed invitations to complete the survey online. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012, 2016, and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.