FAM3.A Percentage of children ages 3–5, not yet enrolled in kindergarten with employed mothers, by type of primary care arrangement, selected years 1995–2019

excel icon FAM3A Excel Table
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Type of primary care arrangement 1995 2001 2005 2012 2016 2019
Parental care only 11.4 13.6 15.6 11.8 15.1 14.0
Nonparental primary care arrangementa 88.6 86.4 84.4 88.2 84.9 86.0
Center-based careb 46.6 50.2 50.9 52.6 53.6 57.5
Home-based nonrelative care 20.1 15.8 11.4 12.4 10.5 9.9
Relative care 20.2 18.7 19.2 20.5 17.5 16.7
Multiple arrangementsc 1.8 1.8 2.9 2.6 3.2 2.0
a A child's nonparental primary care arrangement is the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week.
b Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.
c Children who spent an equal number of hours per week in multiple nonparental care arrangements.
NOTE: Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present. Prior to 2012, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered by telephone with an interviewer. NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, all sampled households received initial contact by mail. While the majority of respondents completed paper questionnaires, a small sample of cases was part of a web experiment with mailed invitations to complete the survey online. For NHES:2019, the majority of data were collected using a web-based survey instrument that respondents accessed with credentials they received in a mailed invitation. Paper surveys were used for nonresponse follow-up and for a small experiment. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012, 2016, 2019, and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.