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ED5.C Youth schoola enrollment and working status: Percentage of youth ages 16–19 by age, school enrollment and working status, gender, and race and Hispanic origin, 2000–2020

excel icon ED5C Excel Table
excel icon ED5C Standard Error Excel Table

Ages 16–19 2000b 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012c 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020d
All
Employed and enrolled in school 30.0 28.0 26.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.1 23.5 22.0 19.0 18.0 17.4 18.0 17.0 17.0 18.2 19.2 19.2 19.4 19.2 17.6
Employed and not enrolled in school 14.0 13.0 12.0 10.0 10.0 9.5 10.0 9.7 9.0 8.0 7.0 7.1 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.1 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.0 10.0
Not employed and enrolled in school 48.0 50.0 54.0 57.0 58.0 57.8 57.4 59.0 60.7 64.0 66.0 67.2 67.0 66.0 65.0 64.2 63.5 63.5 62.9 63.0 62.9
Not employed and not enrolled in school 8.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 8.0 7.7 7.6 7.8 8.2 9.0 9.0 8.3 8.0 9.0 9.0 8.6 8.3 7.8 7.9 7.8 9.5
Male
Employed and enrolled in school 29.0 26.0 24.0 23.0 22.0 22.8 22.9 21.4 19.5 17.0 16.0 15.4 15.0 15.0 15.0 16.4 17.4 17.3 16.8 17.4 15.7
Employed and not enrolled in school 15.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 11.0 10.4 11.2 10.7 10.2 8.0 8.0 7.7 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.3 11.0 10.8 11.4
Not employed and enrolled in school 50.0 52.0 55.0 58.0 59.0 59.4 58.6 60.3 62.2 65.0 67.0 68.4 68.0 67.0 66.0 64.5 64.0 64.4 63.9 63.6 62.8
Not employed and not enrolled in school 7.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 7.4 7.2 7.7 8.1 10.0 9.0 8.5 8.0 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.5 8.1 8.3 8.2 10.1
Female
Employed and enrolled in school 32.0 30.0 28.0 27.0 27.0 27.3 27.4 25.8 24.6 22.0 20.0 19.5 20.0 19.0 20.0 19.9 20.9 21.2 22.0 21.1 19.5
Employed and not enrolled in school 12.0 12.0 10.0 9.0 9.0 8.6 8.6 8.6 7.8 7.0 6.0 6.5 6.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.7 8.7 9.2 8.5
Not employed and enrolled in school 47.0 49.0 52.0 55.0 56.0 56.1 56.1 57.6 59.2 63.0 66.0 65.9 66.0 64.0 64.0 63.9 63.0 62.6 61.8 62.3 63.0
Not employed and not enrolled in school 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 8.0 7.9 8.0 8.4 9.0 9.0 8.1 8.0 9.0 8.0 8.2 8.1 7.5 7.5 7.4 9.0
White, non-Hispanice
Employed and enrolled in school 36.0 34.0 31.0 30.0 30.0 30.5 30.5 28.6 26.8 24.0 22.0 22.2 22.0 21.0 21.0 21.9 22.8 22.5 22.8 22.7 21.0
Employed and not enrolled in school 13.0 13.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 9.2 9.6 9.5 9.0 8.0 7.0 7.6 8.0 9.0 9.0 9.6 9.6 10.0 10.2 10.5 10.4
Not employed and enrolled in school 45.0 47.0 51.0 53.0 54.0 54.4 53.9 55.6 57.6 61.0 63.0 63.4 64.0 62.0 62.0 61.2 60.0 60.8 60.3 59.8 60.2
Not employed and not enrolled in school 6.0 6.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 6.3 6.6 7.0 8.0 6.9 7.0 8.0 8.0 7.3 7.6 6.8 6.7 7.0 8.3
Black, non-Hispanic 
Employed and enrolled in school 19.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 14.0 12.7 15.2 13.0 12.1 10.0 10.0 9.5 10.0 10.0 11.0 11.9 13.0 12.9 13.6 13.4 13.2
Employed and not enrolled in school 10.0 10.0 9.0 7.0 7.0 7.8 7.5 7.3 6.9 6.0 5.0 4.8 5.0 7.0 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.2 9.3 9.0 8.4
Not employed and enrolled in school 59.0 60.0 62.0 67.0 70.0 68.0 66.6 69.1 69.5 73.0 74.0 74.9 74.0 72.0 71.0 69.2 69.7 68.2 65.5 67.3 67.2
Not employed and not enrolled in school 13.0 14.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 11.5 10.7 10.5 11.4 12.0 12.0 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.5 9.6 10.6 11.5 10.3 11.3
Hispanic
Employed and enrolled in school 19.0 20.0 17.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 16.7 16.6 16.0 13.2 12.0 11.3 13.0 12.0 14.0 14.5 15.4 15.9 16.7 15.8 14.3
Employed and not enrolled in school 20.0 19.0 18.0 14.0 14.0 13.4 14.8 13.6 11.9 9.5 8.0 8.2 8.0 9.0 10.0 9.9 10.0 10.3 10.7 10.6 11.2
Not employed and enrolled in school 49.0 48.0 52.0 58.0 58.0 58.0 57.6 58.5 60.6 64.8 68.0 69.8 69.0 68.0 67.0 65.5 65.0 65.1 64.0 64.7 63.3
Not employed and not enrolled in school 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.0 12.0 11.5 10.9 11.3 11.4 12.6 11.0 10.7 11.0 11.0 10.0 10.2 9.7 8.7 8.5 8.8 11.3
Ages 16–17 2000b 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012c 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020d
All
Employed and enrolled in school 31.0 28.0 25.0 24.0 23.0 22.6 23.2 21.4 19.0 15.6 14.0 13.3 13.0 13.0 14.0 14.7 15.4 16.7 16.8 16.3 15.6
Employed and not enrolled in school 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.0 1.1 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.1
Not employed and enrolled in school 63.0 65.0 69.0 71.0 72.0 72.4 71.5 73.2 75.8 79.2 82.0 82.5 82.0 80.0 79.0 78.3 77.4 76.5 76.4 76.8 76.1
Not employed and not enrolled in school 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.0 3.1 3.0 5.0 4.0 4.4 4.6 4.1 4.1 4.2 5.2
Male
Employed and enrolled in school 29.0 27.0 22.0 22.0 21.0 20.3 21.2 19.7 16.6 14.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 13.6 13.7 15.0 14.7 15.1 13.6
Employed and not enrolled in school 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.0 1.2 1.0 2.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.6
Not employed and enrolled in school 65.0 67.0 71.0 73.0 75.0 74.7 73.2 74.8 77.8 80.7 83.0 83.7 84.0 81.0 80.0 78.9 78.8 78.1 78.5 77.6 77.3
Not employed and not enrolled in school 3.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.1 3.0 4.0 5.0 4.6 4.7 3.9 4.0 4.3 5.5
Female
Employed and enrolled in school 32.0 30.0 27.0 26.0 24.0 25.1 25.2 23.2 21.4 17.2 15.0 14.7 15.0 15.0 16.0 15.8 17.2 18.4 18.9 17.4 17.5
Employed and not enrolled in school 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6
Not employed and enrolled in school 61.0 64.0 68.0 69.0 70.0 70.0 69.7 71.5 73.7 77.6 81.0 81.2 81.0 78.0 78.0 77.6 76.0 74.7 74.2 75.9 74.9
Not employed and not enrolled in school 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.0 3.1 3.0 5.0 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.9
White, non-Hispanice
Employed and enrolled in school 37.0 34.0 30.0 29.0 28.0 28.5 28.8 27.1 24.0 20.7 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.8 19.4 20.8 21.1 20.3 19.8
Employed and not enrolled in school 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.0 1.3 2.0 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.4
Not employed and enrolled in school 57.0 61.0 65.0 66.0 67.0 67.4 67.1 68.4 71.6 74.8 78.0 78.1 76.0 75.0 75.0 74.6 73.1 72.5 72.4 72.9 72.1
Not employed and not enrolled in school 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.6 3.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 4.5 3.6 3.5 3.8 4.7
Black, non-Hispanic
Employed and enrolled in school 19.0 16.0 13.0 13.0 11.0 10.2 13.1 11.0 9.4 7.2 7.0 6.1 7.0 7.0 8.0 9.5 9.4 10.2 11.2 11.2 12.2
Employed and not enrolled in school 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.3 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.6 2.5 2.7 2.1 2.4
Not employed and enrolled in school 75.0 77.0 81.0 82.0 85.0 84.4 81.0 83.4 84.5 86.7 88.0 89.4 89.0 87.0 86.0 83.3 84.1 82.3 80.7 81.7 79.5
Not employed and not enrolled in school 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.8 5.2 5.0 3.7 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.2 4.9 5.0 5.5 4.9 5.9
Hispanic
Employed and enrolled in school 18.0 17.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 13.7 14.7 13.3 12.3 8.9 8.0 7.0 9.0 8.0 9.0 9.6 10.7 11.6 11.7 11.4 10.4
Employed and not enrolled in school 5.0 6.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.7 3.5 2.7 1.9 1.0 1.2 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.8 3.0
Not employed and enrolled in school 70.0 70.0 75.0 78.0 80.0 78.3 75.9 77.7 80.2 84.1 86.0 87.8 86.0 85.0 84.0 82.2 81.6 81.1 81.2 81.0 80.4
Not employed and not enrolled in school 7.0 7.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 5.1 5.8 5.5 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.1 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.4 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.8 6.2
Ages 18–19 2000b 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012c 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020d
All
Employed and enrolled in school 30.0 28.0 28.0 27.0 27.0 27.8 27.5 26.1 25.6 23.3 22.0 22.0 22.0 21.0 21.0 22.1 23.5 22.2 22.4 22.6 19.8
Employed and not enrolled in school 24.0 23.0 21.0 20.0 19.0 18.7 19.7 18.9 17.7 14.5 13.0 13.7 14.0 15.0 16.0 16.5 16.8 17.5 18.1 18.2 17.6
Not employed and enrolled in school 34.0 35.0 37.0 40.0 41.0 40.6 40.2 42.0 43.2 47.3 49.0 50.3 51.0 49.0 49.0 48.1 47.2 48.0 47.4 47.3 48.2
Not employed and not enrolled in school 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 13.0 12.9 12.7 12.9 13.6 14.9 15.0 14.0 14.0 15.0 14.0 13.3 12.5 12.2 12.2 12.0 14.4
Male
Employed and enrolled in school 28.0 26.0 25.0 24.0 24.0 25.9 25.0 23.4 22.8 20.3 19.0 19.2 19.0 18.0 18.0 19.7 21.7 19.9 19.3 20.1 18.0
Employed and not enrolled in school 27.0 25.0 24.0 22.0 22.0 20.5 22.2 20.7 20.0 15.6 15.0 14.9 15.0 17.0 18.0 18.5 18.5 19.1 20.4 19.8 19.9
Not employed and enrolled in school 34.0 37.0 38.0 41.0 41.0 41.1 40.9 43.3 44.1 48.2 50.0 51.4 51.0 50.0 50.0 47.8 47.1 48.1 47.1 47.6 47.0
Not employed and not enrolled in school 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 12.0 12.5 11.8 12.6 13.1 15.9 16.0 14.5 15.0 15.0 14.0 13.9 12.7 12.9 13.2 12.5 15.1
Female
Employed and enrolled in school 31.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 29.8 30.0 28.9 28.4 26.3 25.0 24.9 25.0 23.0 24.0 24.6 25.4 24.6 25.5 25.2 21.6
Employed and not enrolled in school 21.0 21.0 19.0 18.0 16.0 16.8 17.0 17.0 15.3 13.3 12.0 12.4 12.0 14.0 14.0 14.4 15.0 15.9 15.7 16.6 15.2
Not employed and enrolled in school 34.0 34.0 37.0 39.0 40.0 40.1 39.4 40.8 42.3 46.5 48.0 49.2 50.0 48.0 48.0 48.4 47.3 48.0 47.6 46.9 49.5
Not employed and not enrolled in school 13.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 13.3 13.6 13.4 14.0 14.0 15.0 13.5 13.0 15.0 13.0 12.6 12.3 11.4 11.2 11.4 13.6
White, non-Hispanice
Employed and enrolled in school 35.0 33.0 33.0 32.0 32.0 33.0 32.7 30.4 29.9 27.8 26.0 26.7 26.0 25.0 25.0 25.4 26.8 24.5 24.8 25.3 22.4
Employed and not enrolled in school 24.0 24.0 21.0 20.0 19.0 18.2 19.2 18.9 17.7 14.9 14.0 14.4 15.0 17.0 17.0 17.5 17.4 18.5 18.6 18.8 18.4
Not employed and enrolled in school 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 39.0 39.0 38.0 40.5 41.6 45.2 46.0 47.3 48.0 46.0 46.0 45.9 44.6 46.4 46.2 45.3 46.7
Not employed and not enrolled in school 9.0 10.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 10.1 10.3 10.8 12.1 13.0 11.5 12.0 13.0 12.0 11.2 11.1 10.7 10.4 10.6 12.5
Black, non-Hispanic
Employed and enrolled in school 18.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 17.0 15.8 17.9 15.7 15.5 13.4 13.0 13.2 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.6 17.4 16.2 16.2 16.1 14.2
Employed and not enrolled in school 20.0 17.0 17.0 14.0 15.0 15.8 14.9 14.9 13.9 11.2 10.0 9.2 9.0 12.0 12.0 13.6 15.1 15.0 16.3 17.1 14.8
Not employed and enrolled in school 42.0 44.0 43.0 48.0 50.0 48.3 48.8 50.4 51.0 55.0 56.0 58.7 58.0 56.0 56.0 53.1 52.2 51.5 49.6 50.3 53.7
Not employed and not enrolled in school 21.0 22.0 24.0 23.0 18.0 20.2 18.5 19.1 19.6 20.4 21.0 18.9 19.0 18.0 19.0 18.7 15.3 17.3 17.9 16.5 17.2
Hispanic
Employed and enrolled in school 20.0 22.0 19.0 17.0 20.0 20.7 19.2 20.2 20.4 17.8 17.0 16.2 18.0 17.0 19.0 19.9 20.8 20.8 22.3 20.9 18.4
Employed and not enrolled in school 32.0 30.0 30.0 27.0 26.0 25.2 28.3 24.9 22.7 17.6 16.0 16.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 18.1 18.5 19.1 20.4 19.7 19.9
Not employed and enrolled in school 30.0 29.0 32.0 37.0 36.0 35.3 35.5 36.9 37.8 44.0 49.0 49.9 49.0 49.0 48.0 46.5 46.0 46.7 44.6 46.1 45.1
Not employed and not enrolled in school 18.0 19.0 20.0 20.0 19.0 18.7 17.1 17.9 19.1 20.6 19.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 16.0 15.5 14.8 13.3 12.7 13.4 16.6
a School refers to both high school and college.
b From 2000 to 2011, data incorporate population controls from Census 2000. 
c Beginning in 2012, data incorporate population controls from Census 2010.
d Data reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to contain it.
e For data before 2003, the 197 U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for data on race and ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. The revised 1997 OMB standards were used for data for 2003 and later years. Persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and "Two or more races." Beginning in 2003, those in each racial category represent those reporting only one race. Data from 2003 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
NOTE: Data relate to the labor force and enrollment status of persons ages 16–19 in the civilian noninstitutionalized population during an "average" week of the school year. The percentages represent an average based on responses to the survey questions for the months that youth are usually in school (January through May and September through December). Results are based on 9 months of data.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.