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ED2.A/B Mathematics and reading achievement: Average mathematics scale scores of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-graders by child and family characteristics, selected years 1990–2015

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Characteristic 1990a 1992a 1996a 1996 2000 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015
4th-graders
Total 213 220 224 224 226 235 238 240 240 241 242 240
Gender
Male 214 221 226 224 227 236 239 241 241 241 242 241
Female 213 219 222 223 224 233 237 239 239 240 241 239
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 220 227 231 232 234 243 246 248 248 249 250 248
Black, non-Hispanic 188 193 199 198 203 216 220 222 222 224 224 224
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 217 208 223 226 228 225 225 227 227
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 225 231 226 229 246 251 253 255 256 258 257
Asian, non-Hispanicc 257 259 259
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 236 236 231
Hispanic 200 202 205 207 208 222 226 227 227 229 231 230
8th-graders
Total 263 268 272 270 273 278 279 281 283 284 285 282
Gender
Male 263 268 272 271 274 278 280 282 284 284 285 282
Female 262 269 272 269 272 277 278 280 282 283 284 282
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 270 277 281 281 284 288 289 291 293 293 294 292
Black, non-Hispanic 237 237 242 240 244 252 255 260 261 262 263 260
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 259 263 264 264 266 265 269 267
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 275 290 288 291 295 297 301 303 306 306
Asian, non-Hispanicc 305 309 307
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 269 275 276
Hispanic 246 249 251 251 253 259 262 265 266 270 272 270
Parents' educationd
Less than high school 242 249 254 250 253 257 259 263 265 265 267 265
High school diploma or equivalent 255 257 261 260 261 267 267 270 270 271 270 268
Some education after high school 267 271 279 277 277 280 280 283 284 285 285 282
Bachelor's degree or higher 274 281 282 281 286 288 290 292 295 295 296 294
12th-graderse
Total 294f 299f 304f 302f 300f 150 153 153 152
Gender
Male 297f 301f 305f 303f 302f 151 155 155 153
Female 291f 298f 303f 300f 299f 149 152 152 150
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 300f 305f 311f 309f 307f 157 161 162 160
Black, non-Hispanic 268f 275f 280f 275f 273f 127 131 132 130
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 284f 294f 134 144 142 138
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 311f 312f 312f 305f 315f 163 175 172 170
Asian, non-Hispanicc 174 171
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 151
Hispanic 276f 286f 287f 284f 282f 133 138 141 139
Parents' educationd
Less than high school 272f 278f 282f 280f 278f 130 135 137 133
High school diploma or equivalent 283f 288f 294f 290f 287f 138 142 139 139
Some education after high school 297f 299f 302f 302f 299f 148 150 152 149
Bachelor's degree or higher 306f 311f 314f 313f 312f 161 164 164 163
— Not available.
‡ Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
a Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and limited-English-proficient students were not permitted.
b For data before 2003, the 1977 U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. The revised 1997 OMB standards were used for data from 2003 and later years. Under these standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Those reporting more than one race were classified as "Two or more races." For 2003 and after, when separate reporting was possible, respondents who reported being Asian or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander were combined for continuity purposes. Also, beginning in 2003, those in a given racial category represent those reporting only that race. Data from 2003 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Included in the total but not shown separately are respondents who selected two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
c For assessment years prior to 2011, separate data for Asians and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were not collected.
d Parents' education is the highest educational attainment of either parent. Data on parents' education are not reliable for 4th-graders.
e In 2003, 2007, and 2011, the mathematics assessment was not conducted at Grade 12.
f The National Governing Board introduced changes in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework in both the assessment content and administration for assessments beginning in 2005. In addition, the results of the revised assessment are placed on a scale of 0–300, unlike previous assessments, which were placed on a scale of 0–500. Thus, the 12th-grade assessment results from prior to 2005 cannot be compared with those of 2005 and later assessments.
NOTE: Results of the NAEP mathematics assessment are reported as a composite scale that combines the results of separately estimated scales for each of the content areas: (1) number of properties and operations; (2) measurement; (3) geometry; (4) data analysis, statistics, and probability; and (5) algebra. (Note that measurement and geometry make up one of four content areas at Grade 12.) The scale ranges from 0 to 500 for Grades 4 and 8 and 0 to 300 for Grade 12.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.