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ECON1.B Income distribution: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty threshold, 1980–2019

excel icon ECON1B Excel Table
excel icon ECON1.B Standard Error Excel Table

Poverty level 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013a 2013b 2014 2015 2016 2017 2017c 2018 2019d
Poverty status
Below 50% of poverty threshold 6.9 7.7 9.0 9.6 9.1 8.6 8.9 9.0 9.0 8.2 8.8 9.8 10.4 10.1 9.8 8.5 9.0 9.0 8.1 7.0 6.7 7.1 6.9 7.7 7.6 7.7 7.5 7.8 8.5 9.3 9.9 9.8 9.7 8.8 9.9 9.3 8.9 8.2 8.0 7.7 6.9 6.2
50%–99% of poverty threshold 11.4 12.3 12.9 12.7 12.4 12.1 11.6 11.3 10.5 11.4 11.8 12.0 11.9 12.6 12.0 12.3 11.5 10.9 10.8 10.2 9.5 9.2 9.7 9.9 10.2 9.9 9.9 10.2 10.5 11.4 12.1 12.0 12.1 11.1 11.6 11.9 10.8 9.8 9.5 9.6 9.3 8.2
100%–199% of poverty threshold 24.0 25.1 24.6 24.4 23.1 22.8 21.9 20.8 21.5 21.2 21.8 22.2 22.0 22.3 22.1 22.5 22.7 21.5 21.2 22.0 21.4 21.9 21.6 21.5 21.5 21.3 21.6 21.2 21.6 21.5 21.6 22.4 22.0 22.7 21.7 21.7 22.1 21.0 21.3 21.4 21.5 20.0
200%–399% of poverty threshold 41.1 39.3 37.8 36.8 37.5 37.4 36.9 37.0 36.5 36.5 36.6 35.3 34.5 33.0 33.3 34.2 33.7 34.1 33.2 32.5 33.8 33.0 32.5 31.8 32.1 31.9 31.4 31.6 31.5 30.4 29.4 29.3 29.2 29.3 28.6 28.4 27.6 29.1 28.8 29.0 29.6 29.0
400%–599% of poverty threshold 11.5 11.3 11.8 11.8 13.1 13.6 14.9 14.4 14.8 14.7 13.7 13.8 14.0 13.7 13.8 13.7 14.0 14.7 15.6 16.2 16.3 16.1 16.5 16.1 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.0 15.2 14.8 14.6 14.1 14.5 14.8 14.8 15.0 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.2 15.9 16.7
600% of poverty threshold and above 5.1 4.3 3.9 4.6 4.8 5.5 6.1 7.4 7.7 8.0 7.3 6.9 7.2 8.3 8.9 8.8 9.0 9.9 11.0 12.1 12.4 12.7 12.7 12.9 12.8 13.3 13.6 13.2 12.7 12.5 12.3 12.3 12.5 13.3 13.3 13.8 14.9 16.1 16.7 17.0 16.8 19.9
a The 2014 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social Economic Supplement (ASEC) included redesigned questions for income and health insurance coverage. All of the approximately 98,000 addresses were eligible to receive the redesigned set of health insurance coverage questions. The redesigned income questions were implemented to a subsample of these 98,000 addresses using a probability split panel design. Approximately 68,000 addresses were eligible to receive a set of income questions similar to those used in the 2013 CPS ASEC, and the remaining 30,000 addresses were eligible to receive the redesigned income questions. The source of these 2013 estimates is the portion of the CPS ASEC sample that received the income questions consistent with the 2013 CPS ASEC, approximately 68,000 addresses.
b The source of these 2013 estimates is the portion of the CPS ASEC sample that received the redesigned income questions, approximately 30,000 addresses.
c Implementation of an updated CPS ASEC processing system. For more information, see technical documentation at https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/demo/datasets/income-poverty/time-series/data-extracts/2018/cps-asec-bridge-file/2018-asec-bridge-file-documentation.pdf and information on the updated processing system at https://www.census.gov/data/datasets/time-series/demo/income-poverty/cps-asec-design.html.
d These data were collected during the global pandemic of 2020. While the Census Bureau went to great lengths to continue to complete interviews by telephone, the response rate for the survey was negatively impacted. The Census Bureau creates weights designed to adjust for nonresponse, but non-respondents in 2020 are less similar to respondents than in earlier years. Of particular interest, respondents in 2020 had relatively higher income and were more educated than non-respondents. For possible effects on these estimates, please see https://www.census.gov/newsroom/blogs/research-matters/2020/09/pandemic-affect-survey-response.html. 
NOTE: Estimates refer to all children ages 0–17. The table shows income categories derived from the ratio of a family’s income to the family’s poverty threshold. In 2019, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $25,926. For example, a family of four with two children would be living below 50% of the poverty threshold if their income was less than $12,963 (50% of $25,926). If the same family's income was at least $25,926 but less than $51,852, the family would be living at 100%–199% of the poverty threshold. Data for 2010 onward use the 2010 Census-based population controls. The 2004 data were revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 CPS ASEC. Data for 2000 to 2009 use the 2000 Census-based population controls. Data for 2000 onward reflect an expanded CPS sample. For more information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/techdocs/cpsmar20.pdf. The Census Bureau reviewed this data product for unauthorized disclosure of confidential information and has approved the disclosure avoidance practices applied to this release (CDDRB-FY21-POP001-0097).
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.