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America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

Physical Environment and Safety Figures

Indicator PHY1: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards, 1999–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy1

NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of children living in counties where air pollution concentrations were higher than the level of a Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The indicator is calculated with reference to the current levels of the air quality standards for all years shown. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) periodically reviews air quality standards and may change them based on updated scientific findings. Measuring concentrations above the level of a standard is not equivalent to violating the standard. The level of a standard may be exceeded on multiple days before the exceedance is considered a violation of the standard. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values have been recalculated based on updated data in the Air Quality System. For more information on the air quality standards that are used in calculating these percentages, please see http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Air Quality System.

Indicator PHY2.A: Percentage of children ages 4–11 with specified blood cotinine levels, selected years 1988–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy2a

NOTE: Cotinine levels are reported for nonsmoking children only. "Any detectable cotinine" indicates blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), the detectable level of cotinine in the blood in 1988–1994. The average (geometric mean) blood cotinine level in children living in homes where someone smoked was 1.0 ng/mL in 1988–19941 and in 2003–2006.2

1 Mannino, D.M., Caraballo, R., Benowitz, N., and Repace, J. (2001). Predictors of cotinine levels in U.S. children: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. CHEST, 120, 718–724.

22 Marano, C., Schober, S.E., Brody, D.J., and Zhang, C. (2009). Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among children and adolescents: United States, 2003–2006. Pediatrics, 124 (5): 1299–1305.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Indicator PHY2.B: Percentage of children ages 0–6 living in homes where someone smoked regularly by poverty status, 1994, 2005, and 2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy2b

NOTE: A home where someone smoked regularly is defined as one in which smoking by a resident occurred 4 or more days per week.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Indicator PHY3: Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy3

NOTE: A new standard for disinfection byproducts was implemented beginning in 2002 for larger drinking water systems and in 2004 for smaller systems. Revisions to the standard for surface water treatment took effect in 2002. A revised standard for radionuclides went into effect in 2003. A revised standard for arsenic (included in the Chemical and radionuclide category) went into effect in 2006. No other revisions to the standards have taken effect during the period of trend data (beginning with 1993). Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values for years prior to 2010 have been recalculated based on the standard in effect for that year and updated data in the Safe Drinking Water Information System.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Safe Drinking Water Information System.

Indicator PHY4.A: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with specified blood lead levels, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy4a

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Indicator PHY4.B: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with specified blood lead levels by race and Hispanic origin and poverty status, 2007–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy4b

* Estimate is considered unstable (relative standard error is greater than 30 percent but less than 40 percent).

** Estimate is considered unreliable (relative standard error greater than 40 percent).

NOTE: For 2007–2010, the revised 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used. Persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and "Two or more races." Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately but combined for reporting. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Indicator PHY5: Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2009
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy5

NOTE: Data are available for 1978, 1983, 1989, and biennially since 1993. All data are weighted using the decennial Census that preceded the date of their collection.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development, American Housing Survey.

Tabulated by Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Indicator PHY6: Rate of serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 by gender, 1980–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy6

NOTE: Serious violent crimes include aggravated assault, rape, robbery (stealing by force or threat of violence), and homicide. Homicide data were not available for 2010 at the time of publication. The number of homicides for 2009 is included in the overall total for 2010. In 2009, homicides represented about 1 percent of serious violent crime, and the total number of homicides of juveniles has been relatively stable over the last decade. Because of changes made in the victimization survey, data prior to 1992 are adjusted to make them comparable with data collected under the redesigned methodology. Due to further methodological changes in the 2006 National Crime Victimization Survey, use caution when comparing 2006 criminal victimization estimates to other years. See Criminal Victimization, 2007, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=764, for more information. Estimates may vary from previous publication due to updating of more recent homicide and victimization numbers.

SOURCE: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey and Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Indicator PHY7.A: Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by leading causes of injury visits, 2007–2008
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy7a

NOTE: Visits are the initial visit to the emergency department for the injury. Among causes of injury, "struck" denotes being struck by or against an object or person, "natural or environmental" denotes injuries caused by natural or environmental factors such as insect or animal bites, and "cut or pierced" denotes injuries caused by cutting or piercing from instruments or objects.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Indicator PHY7.B: Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by all causes and all injury causes, 1980–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy7b

NOTE: 2010 data were obtained from preliminary death records from the National Vital Statistics System. Caution should be taken in interpreting injury death rates based on preliminary data, as these tend to be underestimated. See Deaths: Preliminary data for 2010, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_04.pdf. Rates for 2001–2009 are revised and may differ from rates previously published.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator PHY7.C: Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by cause of death, 2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy7c

NOTE: 2010 data were obtained from preliminary death records from the National Vital Statistics System. Caution should be taken in interpreting injury death rates based on preliminary data, as these tend to be underestimated. See Deaths: Preliminary data for 2010, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_04.pdf. Rates for 2001–2009 are revised and may differ from rates previously published.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator PHY8.A: Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury visits, 2007–2008
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy8a

NOTE: Visits are the initial visit to the emergency department for the injury. Among causes of injury, "struck" denotes being struck by or against an object or person, "cut or pierced" denotes injuries caused by cutting or piercing from instruments or objects, "overexertion" denotes excessive physical exercise or strenuous movements in recreational or other activities, and "natural or environmental" denotes injuries caused by natural or environmental factors such as insect or animal bites.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Indicator PHY8.B: Death rates among adolescents ages 15–149 by all causes and all injury causes and selected mechanisms of injury, 1980–2010
The data in this figure is represented in table Phy8b

NOTE: 2010 data were obtained from preliminary death records from the National Vital Statistics System. Caution should be taken in interpreting injury death rates based on preliminary data, as these tend to be underestimated. See Deaths: Preliminary data for 2010, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_04.pdf. Rates for 2001–2009 are revised and may differ from rates previously published.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.