ECON1.C Supplemental poverty measure: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2020a

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Characteristic Official poverty measure Supplemental poverty measure
Total 16.0 9.7
Race and Hispanic originb
White, Non-Hispanic 9.9 5.6
Black, Non-Hispanic 27.9 17.2
Asian, Non-Hispanic 7.4 6.1
Hispanic (of any race) 23.1 14.7
a Estimates include unrelated individuals under age 15.
b The term "White, non-Hispanic" is used to refer to people who reported being White and no other race and who are not Hispanic. The term "Black, non-Hispanic" is used to refer to people who reported being Black or African American and no other race and who are not Hispanic, and the term "Asian, non-Hispanic" is used to refer to people who reported only Asian as their race and who are not Hispanic. The use of single-race populations in this table does not imply that this is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The U.S. Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. From 1980 to 2002, following the 1977 U.S. Office of Management and Budget standards for collecting and presenting data on race, the Current Population Survey (CPS) asked respondents to choose one race from the following: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. An "Other" category was also offered. Beginning in 2003, the CPS allowed respondents to select one or more race categories. People who reported only one race are referred to as the race-alone population. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
NOTE: During collection of the 2021 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement, for the safety of both interviewers and respondents, in-person interviews were only conducted when telephone interviews could not be done. In March 2021, the response rate for the CPS basic household survey improved to about 76 percent, though not quite returning to the pre-pandemic trend. While the response rate improved, it is important to examine how respondents differ from nonrespondents, as this difference could affect income and poverty estimates. Using administrative data, Census Bureau researchers have documented that the nonrespondents in both 2020 and 2021 are less similar to respondents than in earlier years. For more details on how these sample differences and the associated nonresponse bias impact income and official poverty estimates, refer to For more information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see technical documentation at These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population. For more information about the supplemental poverty measure, see Fox, L and Burns, K(2021). The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2020. In Census Publications (P60-275). Retrieved from All results were approved for release by the U.S. Census Bureau, authorization number CBDRB-FY22-SEHSD003-004.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

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