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PHY2.A Secondhand smoke: Percentage of children ages 4–17 with specified blood cotinine levels by age and race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1988–2012

excel icon PHY2A Excel Table
excel icon PHY2A Standard Error Excel Table

Characteristic 1988–1994 1999–2000 2001–2002 2003–2004 2005–2006 2007–2008 2009–2010 2011–2012
Ages 4–17 - Any detectable cotinine at or above 0.05 ng/mL
Totala 84.4 64.2 52.6 61.1 48.9 50.0 39.6 37.3
White, non-Hispanic 83.7 62.7 48.8 63.3 48.9 53.8 39.1 36.9
Black, non-Hispanic 94.7 83.6 80.6 78.2 69.6 62.0 63.7 60.6
Mexican American 76.5 48.2 44.4 38.0 33.2 28.0 25.6 25.3
Ages 4–17 - Blood cotinine above 1.0 ng/mL
Totala 22.5 16.9 16.1 17.1 11.6 15.3 9.0 8.1
White, non-Hispanic 23.1 20.0 18.0 19.5 11.5 19.3 8.9 8.7
Black, non-Hispanic 33.7 22.3 22.6 21.5 21.2 15.4 20.7 16.5
Mexican American 8.3 4.9 5.4* 4.3 4.1 5.1* 3.5
Ages 4–11 - Any detectable cotinine at or above 0.05 ng/mL
Totala 84.5 64.4 55.1 63.7 51.4 52.6 41.7 40.5
White, non-Hispanic 83.3 62.8 53.7 67.7 52.3 57.4 42.0 37.4
Black, non-Hispanic 94.7 86.2 81.3 81.5 69.7 65.1 67.6 68.7
Mexican American 76.7 48.6 45.3 37.6 32.0 29.1 27.6 29.6
Ages 4–11 - Blood cotinine above 1.0 ng/mL
Totala 24.3 17.7 18.1 18.7 12.3 16.7 9.4 9.7
White, non-Hispanic 25.6 21.0 20.8 22.3 11.8 21.7 9.1 10.1
Black, non-Hispanic 34.2 23.5 24.1 22.7 25.0 18.9 25.8 20.6
Mexican American 8.9 4.7 3.6 2.6*
Ages 12–17 - Any detectable cotinine at or above 0.05 ng/mL
Totala 84.3 63.9 49.6 57.9 46.0 47.0 37.2 33.8
White, non-Hispanic 84.3 62.5 43.1 58.2 45.1 49.6 36.1 36.4
Black, non-Hispanic 94.8 79.9 79.5 73.9 69.5 58.7 59.2 50.9
Mexican American 76.3 47.5 43.2 38.6 34.7 26.6 23.0 20.0
Ages 12–17 - Blood cotinine above 1.0 ng/mL
Totala 20.1 16.0 13.6 15.0 10.8 13.7 8.4 6.3
White, non-Hispanic 19.7 18.6 14.8 16.3 11.2 16.4 8.7* 7.2
Black, non-Hispanic 33.1 20.7 20.7 20.0 17.1 11.6 14.8* 11.7
Mexican American 7.4 5.1 6.8* 5.2 7.2 4.7*
* Estimate is considered unstable (relative standard error is greater than 30 percent but less than 40 percent).
‡ Reporting standards not met; the estimate is considered unreliable (relative standard error is greater than 40 percent).
a Totals include data for racial/ethnic groups not shown separately.
NOTE: Cotinine levels are reported for nonsmoking children only (non-smoker defined as those with cotinine less than or equal to 10 ng/mL). "Any detectable cotinine" indicates blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), the detectable level of cotinine in the blood in 1988–1994. The average (geometric mean) blood cotinine level in children living in homes where someone smoked was 1.0 ng/mL in 1988–19941 and in 2003–2006.2 For 1988-1994, the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. For 1999–2012, the revised 1997 OMB Standards were used. Persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and "Two or more races." Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately but combined for reporting. Beginning in 2007, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey allows for reporting of both total Hispanics and Mexican Americans; however, estimates reported here are for Mexian Americans to be consistent with earlier years. Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
1 Mannino, D.M., Caraballo, R., Benowitz, N., and Repace, J. (2001). Predictors of cotinine levels in U.S. children: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. CHEST, 120, 718–724.
2 Marano, C., Schober, S.E., Brody, D.J., and Zhang, C. (2009). Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among children and adolescents: United States, 2003–2006. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1299–1305.