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PHY1 Outdoor air quality: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2014

excel icon PHY1 Excel Table

Characteristic 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
All races
One or more pollutants 75.8 77.4 78.2 77.6 78.4 76.9 78.1 76.4 76.9 73.0 67.1 72.8 70.8 70.9 61.9 60.3
Carbon monoxide — 8-hour standard 5.7 4.4 0.7 4.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 3.1
Lead — 3-month standard 2.3 1.6 2.1 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.2 5.0 5.0 4.2 6.6 6.7 2.6 0.9 0.6
Nitrogen dioxide — 1-hour standard 23.2 19.4 17.3 18.8 17.3 16.0 13.7 12.3 10.7 12.3 8.5 7.1 3.3 3.0 5.4 6.8
Ozone — 8-hour standard 66.1 67.3 68.1 68.7 69.3 66.8 69.0 68.6 67.3 65.8 59.3 66.6 66.3 67.2 56.7 53.8
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — annual standard 37.3 52.4 47.8 47.3 44.4 38.6 47.3 36.8 39.7 26.6 14.7 16.2 14.4 8.4 9.7 8.8
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — 24-hour standard 55.0 62.5 60.7 60.8 56.6 55.8 59.9 45.4 53.3 36.8 31.6 35.3 26.7 24.2 22.4 27.9
Particulate matter (PM10) — 24-hour standard 12.3 10.4 6.8 10.2 8.8 7.5 6.7 8.8 15.5 8.1 9.3 5.2 5.8 8.7 7.4 7.0
Sulfur dioxide — 1-hour standard 31.1 28.8 26.6 25.5 21.5 20.4 20.7 16.5 15.2 16.8 11.2 8.6 8.0 6.9 8.3 5.3
White, non-Hispanic
One or more pollutants 72.0 73.0 72.0 72.8 70.9 72.6 70.5 71.3 66.4 60.5 66.1 63.7 64.9 54.3 52.6
Carbon monoxide — 8-hour standard 1.6 0.4 1.5 0 0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 1.1
Lead — 3-month standard 1.6 1.8 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.3 2.9 2.9 2.1 3.9 4.0 2.4 0.9 0.9
Nitrogen dioxide — 1-hour standard 11.2 10.2 10.9 10.2 8.2 7.6 6.9 5.6 7.0 3.8 2.8 1.2 1.6 2.5 3.8
Ozone — 8-hour standard 61.9 62.3 63.1 64.0 60.8 63.5 62.9 62.0 58.4 51.6 59.4 58.9 60.9 48.2 45.7
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — annual standard 45.1 40.9 40.1 36.8 30.9 40.4 28.9 32.5 19.2 8.8 11.0 9.1 4.6 5.5 5.0
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — 24-hour standard 54.4 53.1 53.0 48.9 47.3 53.1 37.8 45.5 29.5 23.3 29.0 20.1 17.7 17.3 21.5
Particulate matter (PM10) — 24-hour standard 6.0 5.3 6.2 6.7 5.8 5.6 5.7 9.0 5.8 5.5 3.8 4.3 6.4 4.9 4.9
Sulfur dioxide — 1-hour standard 24.5 22.1 21.0 19.1 18.4 18.9 14.9 14.6 13.8 9.7 8.3 7.5 6.4 7.3 5.5
Black, non-Hispanic
One or more pollutants 84.8 85.0 84.4 84.8 83.9 84.7 82.9 83.2 79.2 72.7 79.6 76.2 75.7 62.9 62.3
Carbon monoxide — 8-hour standard 3.3 0.8 3.6 0 0 0.1 0.7 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 1.7
Lead — 3-month standard 2.0 2.2 1.7 1.9 0.9 2.0 0.9 4.0 3.9 2.7 6.9 7.0 1.8 0.7 0.5
Nitrogen dioxide — 1-hour standard 23.0 17.6 24.0 18.8 19.3 16.9 14.7 13.0 11.4 9.6 7.1 1.8 3.0 4.8 5.4
Ozone — 8-hour standard 72.6 74.5 74.6 73.2 71.7 73.3 73.8 72.2 71.9 64.6 73.0 72.4 72.2 58.5 57.2
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — annual standard 69.8 63.7 61.3 61.3 55.1 63.2 52.6 53.9 37.3 17.0 21.1 15.3 6.0 5.1 8.0
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — 24-hour standard 75.3 71.7 70.9 65.4 66.6 70.9 52.1 64.6 43.6 33.8 41.3 27.7 21.7 14.5 24.7
Particulate matter (PM10) — 24-hour standard 10.4 4.5 6.4 8.2 7.4 5.1 7.8 11.1 4.6 4.4 3.1 4.3 6.8 3.3 4.6
Sulfur dioxide — 1-hour standard 39.4 38.6 36.5 34.6 32.6 31.9 27.4 23.9 22.1 17.2 14.3 12.0 11.6 11.1 8.4
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic
One or more pollutants 92.3 92.7 92.3 92.5 91.6 91.5 90.6 88.0 83.1 79.7 87.4 82.6 82.5 76.5 73.4
Carbon monoxide — 8-hour standard 9.4 0.3 8.9 0 0 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 6.2
Lead — 3-month standard 1.9 2.7 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.2 8.8 8.6 8.0 10.0 9.9 4.4 1.5 0.3
Nitrogen dioxide — 1-hour standard 32.9 29.1 28.9 30.1 26.2 19.2 19.0 16.4 18.1 12.1 13.1 6.5 3.8 8.9 10.2
Ozone — 8-hour standard 76.1 76.6 76.6 78.1 76.2 76.9 77.3 75.9 75.5 71.8 76.7 74.4 76.5 70.8 67.8
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — annual standard 66.2 61.8 60.2 53.2 46.5 54.7 42.6 45.9 32.4 18.6 18.2 16.1 11.8 19.9 11.6
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — 24-hour standard 84.2 83.1 82.9 77.3 78.6 77.1 69.0 71.9 52.9 47.4 48.6 40.2 36.6 38.2 38.0
Particulate matter (PM10) — 24-hour standard 19.1 10.2 13.3 7.9 6.0 10.2 8.7 21.5 7.6 12.2 3.9 4.2 7.7 7.4 6.7
Sulfur dioxide — 1-hour standard 32.6 28.4 29.8 21.0 19.2 20.2 11.6 11.0 17.9 9.9 6.0 6.4 5.3 7.0 3.6
American Indian or Alaska Native non-Hispanic
One or more pollutants 51.1 54.8 53.4 59.3 57.5 58.8 59.5 59.5 52.2 43.7 52.1 51.6 52.8 45.8 43.6
Carbon monoxide — 8-hour standard 1.7 1.2 1.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7
Lead — 3-month standard 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.6 1.9 1.4 0.2 0.5
Nitrogen dioxide — 1-hour standard 11.1 8.9 8.9 8.3 7.2 6.4 5.8 3.8 6.3 2.4 2.4 1.2 2.1 1.6 4.6
Ozone — 8-hour standard 40.7 41.4 43.8 47.3 45.5 48.2 48.3 47.8 43.8 35.3 45.7 45.5 47.6 39.0 34.0
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — annual standard 25.8 21.9 22.7 18.6 15.5 24.8 16.7 21.4 9.2 5.1 5.7 6.8 3.5 4.5 3.1
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — 24-hour standard 34.6 33.3 36.0 31.2 31.0 34.7 26.0 31.5 18.7 18.0 17.9 16.5 15.9 16.2 20.2
Particulate matter (PM10) — 24-hour standard 7.1 9.2 10.3 10.1 8.9 8.9 13.7 13.7 11.2 10.2 8.3 10.3 12.0 12.8 11.2
Sulfur dioxide — 1-hour standard 14.8 13.8 14.2 13.2 12.8 13.1 10.8 10.8 8.1 4.3 7.1 6.2 5.8 5.4 2.8
Hispanic
One or more pollutants 88.2 88.6 88.4 88.5 87.3 86.9 85.7 85.8 84.3 78.0 81.9 82.1 79.9 75.7 73.7
Carbon monoxide — 8-hour standard 14.2 1.8 12.0 0 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.0
Lead — 3-month standard 1.1 3.3 0.8 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.2 10.6 10.3 9.8 12.3 12.2 3.3 1.1 0.2
Nitrogen dioxide — 1-hour standard 43.1 39.5 38.9 36.4 35.2 28.2 24.7 21.5 25.8 19.0 16.4 8.7 6.1 11.8 13.8
Ozone — 8-hour standard 81.8 82.2 81.8 82.3 80.2 81.2 79.8 77.2 79.3 72.9 78.1 78.9 77.4 72.1 67.3
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — annual standard 61.6 56.0 58.0 54.2 48.4 54.6 46.7 48.4 37.5 27.1 25.3 26.0 18.3 19.7 17.4
Particulate matter (PM2.5) — 24-hour standard 76.7 73.7 74.6 70.7 69.0 68.7 57.2 63.0 48.0 48.0 44.5 38.7 38.3 35.8 42.2
Particulate matter (PM10) — 24-hour standard 24.6 13.2 26.1 16.0 13.0 10.3 18.1 35.0 16.5 21.4 10.0 10.4 15.1 15.3 13.0
Sulfur dioxide — 1-hour standard 34.6 31.8 30.9 19.3 17.4 17.8 14.1 12.0 20.8 11.4 6.2 7.2 5.2 9.1 3.3
—Not available.
NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of children living in counties where measured air pollution concentrations were higher than the level of a Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard at least once during the year. The indicator is calculated with reference to the current levels of the air quality standards (as of December 2015) for all years shown. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) periodically reviews air quality standards and may change them based on updated scientific findings. Measuring concentrations above the level of a standard is not equivalent to violating the standard. The level of a standard may be exceeded on multiple days before the exceedance is considered a violation of the standard. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values have been recalculated based on updated data in the Air Quality System and the revised standard for ozone promulgated in October 2015. For more information on the air quality standards that are used in calculating these percentages, please see http://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table. The revised 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for race were used for the 2000-2014 race-specific estimates. A person’s race is described by one or more of four racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately but are combined for reporting. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Air Quality System.