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HC4.C Oral health: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with untreated dental caries (cavities) by age, poverty status, and race and Hispanic origin, 1988–1994, 1999–2004, 2005–2008, 2009–2010, and 2011–2012

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Characteristic 1988–1994 1999–2004 2005–2008 2009–2010 2011–2012
Ages 5–17
Total 24.3 23.3 16.4 14.3 16.7
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty 39.0 33.5 26.3 21.6 24.3
100–199% poverty 29.7 32.2 18.3 18.7 21.1
200% poverty and above 15.2 14.5 11.9 9.6 9.8
Race and Hispanic origina
White, non-Hispanic 19.5 19.7 13.2 11.4 13.5
Black, non-Hispanic 33.2 28.5 22.0 21.1 21.8
Mexican American 38.3 34.1 22.0 21.4 23.9
Ages 5–11
Total 27.8 27.1 20.4 15.9 19.4
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty 43.4 37.5 30.6 23.4 24.3
100–199% poverty 31.7 36.1 22.9 20.1 24.8
200% poverty and above 18.1 17.3 15.0 10.6 12.9
Race and Hispanic origina
White, non-Hispanic 23.0 23.3 17.7 12.4 15.1
Black, non-Hispanic 34.3 32.1 26.3 18.5 25.9
Mexican American 42.5 39.1 25.0 27.4 26.3
Ages 12–17
Total 20.0 18.8 11.9 12.5 13.7
Poverty status
Below 100% poverty 32.5 28.1 20.3 19.3 24.2
100–199% poverty 27.4 26.8 12.4 16.9 17.1
200% poverty and above 11.7 11.6 8.8 8.5 6.8
Race and Hispanic origina
White, non-Hispanic 15.2 15.5 8.6 10.4 11.8
Black, non-Hispanic 31.9 24.2 17.3 23.9 17.5
Mexican American 32.8 27.3 17.9 13.8 20.9
a For 1988–1994, the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. For 1999–2010, the revised 1997 OMB Standards were used. Persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and "Two or more races." Beginning in 1999, those in each racial category represent those reporting only one race. Data from 1999 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately but combined for reporting. Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. From 1988 to 2006, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample was designed to provide estimates specifically for persons of Mexican origin. Beginning in 2007, NHANES allows for reporting of both total Hispanics and Mexican Americans; however, estimates reported here are for Mexican Americans to be consistent with earlier years.
NOTE: Estimates for 1999–2004, 2005–2008, and 2009–2010 have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Dental caries is evidence of decay on the crown or enamel surface of a tooth (i.e., coronal caries) and includes treated and untreated caries. Decay in the root (i.e., root caries) was not included. The presence of caries was evaluated in primary and permanent teeth for persons ages 5–17. The third molars were not included. Dental caries was identified by an oral examination as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). For more information on the NHANES oral examination, see Dye, B.A., Tan, S., Smith, V., Lewis, B.G., Barker, L.K., and Thornton-Evans, G., Trends in oral health status: United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2004, Vital and Health Statistics, 11(248), Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; Dye, B.A., Barker, L.K., Li, X., Lewis, B.G., and Beltrán-Aguilar, E.D., 2011, Overview and quality assurance for the oral health component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–08, Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 71(1), 54–61; and http://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/2009-2010/OHXDEN_F.htm and http://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/2011-2012/OHXDEN_G.htm.
SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.