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ED2.C Mathematics and reading achievement: Average reading scale scores of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-graders by child and family characteristics, selected years 1992–2015

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Characteristic 1992a 1994a 1998a 1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015
4th-graders
Total 217 214 217 215 213 219 218 219 221 221 221 222 223
Gender
Male 213 209 214 212 208 215 215 216 218 218 218 219 219
Female 221 220 220 217 219 222 222 222 224 224 225 225 226
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 224 224 226 225 224 229 229 229 231 230 231 232 232
Black, non-Hispanic 192 185 193 193 190 199 198 200 203 205 205 206 206
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 211 214 207 202 204 203 204 202 205 205
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 216 220 221 215 225 224 226 229 232 235 235 235 239
Asian, non-Hispanicc 236 237 241
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 216 212 215
Hispanic 197 188 195 193 190 201 200 203 205 205 206 207 208
8th-graders
Total 260 260 264 263 264 263 262 263 264 265 268 265
Gender
Male 254 252 257 256 260 258 257 258 259 261 263 261
Female 267 267 270 270 269 269 267 268 269 270 273 270
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 267 267 271 270 272 272 271 272 273 274 276 274
Black, non-Hispanic 237 236 243 244 245 244 243 245 246 249 250 248
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 248 250 246 249 247 251 252 251 252
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 268 265 267 264 267 270 271 271 274 275 280 280
Asian, non-Hispanicc 277 282 281
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 254 259 255
Hispanic 241 243 245 243 247 245 246 247 249 252 256 253
Parents' educationd
Less than high school 243 238 243 242 248 245 244 245 248 248 251 249
High school diploma or equivalent 251 252 254 254 257 254 252 253 254 254 255 253
Some education after high school 265 266 269 268 268 267 265 266 267 267 270 267
Bachelor's degree or higher 271 270 274 273 274 273 272 273 274 275 278 276
12th-graders
Total 292 287 291 290 287 286 288 288
Gender
Male 287 280 283 282 279 279 282 284
Female 297 294 298 298 295 292 294 293
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 297 293 297 297 292 293 296 297
Black, non-Hispanic 273 265 271 269 267 267 269 268
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 274 279 283 277
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 290 278 288 287 286 287 298 296
Asian, non-Hispanicc 296
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 289
Hispanic 279 270 276 275 273 272 274 276
Parents' educationd
Less than high school 275 266 268 268 268 268 269 270
High school diploma or equivalent 283 277 280 279 278 274 276 276
Some education after high school 294 289 292 291 289 287 287 288
Bachelor's degree or higher 301 298 301 300 296 297 299 299
— Not available.
‡ Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
a Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and limited-English-proficient students were not permitted.
b For data before 2003, the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. The revised 1997 OMB Standards were used for data from 2003 and later years. Under these standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Those reporting more than one race were classified as “Two or more races.” For 2003 and after, when separate reporting was possible, respondents who reported being Asian or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander were combined for continuity purposes. Also, beginning in 2003, those in a given racial category represent those reporting only that race. Data from 2003 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Included in the total but not shown separately are respondents who selected Two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
c For assessment years prior to 2011, separate data for Asians and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were not collected.
d Parents’ education is the highest educational attainment of either parent. Data on parents’ education are not reliable for 4th-graders.
NOTE: In 2000, the assessment was only conducted at grade 4. In 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015, the assessment was only conducted at grades 4 and 8.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.