ChildStats.gov—Forum on Child and Family Statistics
faces of children
Home  |  About the Forum  |  Publications  |  Help
Search

America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2016

Health and Safety Figures

Figure 27: Death rates among infants by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1999–2013
Death rates among infants by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1999–2013

NOTE: Infant deaths are deaths before an infant's first birthday. Race refers to mother's race. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected and reported separately. Data from states reporting multiple races were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity for comparability with other states.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure 28: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who had at least one major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year by race and Hispanic origin, 2004–2014
Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who had at least one major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year by race and Hispanic origin, 2004–2014

NOTE: MDE is defined as a period of at least two weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities plus at least four additional symptoms of depression (such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and feelings of self-worth) as described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). The 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards were used to collect race and ethnicity data. Persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, or Asian. Respondents could choose more than one race. Those reporting more than one race were classified as "Two or more races." Data on Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Figure 29: Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1988–2014
Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1988–2014

NOTE: Previously a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific BMI growth charts was termed overweight (http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts); it is now termed obesity..88 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity for comparability with other states. Beginning in 2007, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey allows for reporting of both total Hispanics and Mexican Americans; however, estimates reported here are for Mexican Americans to be consistent with earlier years.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure 30: Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by race and Hispanic origin, 2011–2014
Percentage of children ages 6–17 with obesity by race and Hispanic origin, 2011–2014

NOTE: Previously a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific BMI growth charts was termed overweight (http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts); it is now termed obesity.91 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity for comparability with other states. Beginning in 2007, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) allows for reporting of both total Hispanics and Mexican Americans. Beginning in 2011, the NHANES sample was designed to provide estimates for Asians. Estimates reported in the trend chart do not include Asian, non-Hispanics or Hispanics to be consistent with earlier years.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure 31: Percentage of children ages 0–17 who currently have asthma by race and Hispanic origin, 2001–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 who currently have asthma by race and Hispanic origin, 2001–2014

NOTE: Children are identified as ever having been diagnosed with asthma by asking parents, "Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that your child has asthma?" If the parent answers yes to this question, they are then asked, (1) "Does your child still have asthma?" and (2) "During the past 12 months, has your child had an episode of asthma or an asthma attack?" The question "Does your child still have asthma?" was introduced in 2001 and identifies children who currently have asthma. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected and combined for reporting according to 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. The 2003 estimate for Asian, non-Hispanic children was unreliable and therefore not presented.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure HEALTH1.A: Percentage of infants born preterm and percentage of infants born with low birthweight, 1990–2014
Percentage of infants born preterm and percentage of infants born with low birthweight, 1990–2014

NOTE: Beginning with 2014, the obstetric estimate of gestation at delivery (OE) replaces the gestational age measure based on the date of the last normal menses (LMP) as the new standard for estimating the gestational age of a newborn. Data in this table show the OE for 2007 (the first year for which national data are available) through 2014; earlier years are based on the LMP. Late preterm infants are born at 34–36 weeks of gestation; early preterm infants are born at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Moderately low birthweight infants weigh 1,500–2,499 grams at birth; very low birthweight infants weigh less than 1,500 grams at birth.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure HEALTH1.B: Percentage of infants born with low birthweight by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1990, 2006, and 2014
xxx

NOTE: Race refers to mother's race. The 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. Although state reporting of birth certificate data is transitioning to comply with the 1997 OMB standard for race and ethnicity statistics, 2006 and 2014 data from states reporting multiple races were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 OMB standards for comparability with other states. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected and reported separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure HEALTH3: Percentage of children ages 4–17 reported by a parent to have serious emotional or behavioral difficulties by gender, 2001–2014
Percentage of children ages 4–17 reported by a parent to have serious emotional or behavioral difficulties by gender, 2001–2014

NOTE: Emotional or behavioral difficulties of children were based on parental responses to the following question on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): "Overall, do you think that (child) has difficulties in any of the following areas: emotions, concentration, behavior, or being able to get along with other people?" Response choices were (1) no; (2) yes, minor difficulties; (3) yes, definite difficulties; (4) yes, severe difficulties. Children with serious emotional or behavioral difficulties are defined as those whose parent responded "yes, definite" or "yes, severe." These difficulties may be similar to but do not equate with the Federal definition of serious emotional disturbances (SED), used by the Federal government for planning purposes.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure HEALTH4: Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who experienced a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the past year by age and gender, 2004–2014
Percentage of youth ages 12–17 who experienced a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the past year by age and gender, 2004–2014

NOTE: Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities plus at least four additional symptoms of depression (such as problems with sleep, eating, energy, concentration, and feelings of self-worth) as described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).

SOURCE: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Figure HEALTH5: Percentage of children ages 5–17 with activity limitation resulting from one or more chronic health conditions by gender, 2000–2014
Percentage of children ages 5–17 with activity limitation resulting from one or more chronic health conditions by gender, 2000–2014

NOTE: Children are identified as having activity limitation by asking parents (1) whether children receive special education services and (2) whether they are limited in their ability to walk, care for themselves, or participate in other activities. "Activity limitation indicated by participation in special education only" includes children identified solely by their use of special education services. "Activity limitation indicated by all other limitations" includes limitations in self-care, walking, or other activities; children in this category may also receive special education services. Chronic health conditions are conditions that once acquired are not cured or have a duration of 3 months or more.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure HEALTH6: Mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total and component scores for children ages 2–17, 2007–08, 2009–10 and 2011–12
xxx

NOTE: HEI-2010 scores are expressed as percentages of recommended dietary intake levels. A score corresponding to 100 percent indicates that the recommendation was met or exceeded, on average. A score below 100 percent indicates that average intake does not meet the recommendations for that component. For the adequacy components, higher scores reflect higher intakes. For the moderation components, higher scores reflect lower intakes because lower intakes are more desirable. For all components, a higher percentage indicates a higher quality diet. "Empty calories" refers to calories from solid fats (i.e., sources of saturated fats and trans fats) and added sugars (i.e., sugars not naturally occurring). Total fruit includes 100 percent fruit juice.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED), and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion and National Cancer Institute, Healthy Eating Index-2010.

Figure HEALTH8: Percentage of children ages 0–17 with asthma, 1997–2014
xxx

NOTE: Children are identified as ever diagnosed with asthma by asking parents, "Has a doctor or other health professional EVER told you that your child has asthma?" If the parent answers YES to this question, they are then asked (1) "Does your child still have asthma?" and (2) "During the past 12 months, has your child had an episode of asthma or an asthma attack?" The question "Does your child still have asthma?" was introduced in 2001 and identifies children who currently have asthma.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.