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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2016

Family and Social Environment Figures

Figure 2: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by parental and child nativity and race and Hispanic origin, 2015
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by parental and child nativity and race and Hispanic origin, 2015

NOTE: The abbreviation NH refers to non-Hispanic origin. Native-born parents means that all of the parents that the child lives with are native born, while foreign-born parent means that at least one of the child's parents is foreign born. Anyone with U.S. citizenship at birth is considered native born, which includes people born in the United States and in U.S. outlying areas, and people born abroad with at least one American parent. Only children who live with at least one parent are included. Persons under age 18 who were the respondent or spouse were not included. Since Hispanics may be of any race, the categories shown are not mutually exclusive, and percentages will add to more than 100 percent.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure 3: Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1995–2014
Birth rates for females ages 15–17 by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 1995–2014

NOTE: Race refers to mother's race. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected and reported separately. Data from states reporting multiple races were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget Standards on Race and Ethnicity for comparability with other states.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure 4: Rate of substantiated maltreatment reports of children ages 0–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 2000–2014
Rate of substantiated maltreatment reports of children ages 0–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 2000–2014

NOTE: The data in this figure are victimization rates based on the number of investigations and assessments by Child Protective Services that found the child to be a victim of one or more types of maltreatment. This is a duplicated count because an individual child may have been determined to have been maltreated on more than one occasion. Substantiated maltreatment includes the dispositions of substantiated, indicated, or alternative response victims. The number of states reporting may vary from year to year. States vary in their definitions of abuse and neglect. Data since 2007 are not directly comparable with prior years as differences may be partially attributed to changes in one state's procedures for substantiating maltreatment.

SOURCE: Administration for Children and Families, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System.

Figure FAM1.A: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 1980–2015
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by presence of parents in household, 1980–2015

NOTE: Data for 2015 exclude about 276,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. The 2014 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) of the Current Population Survey (CPS) included redesigned questions for income and health insurance coverage. All of the approximately 98,000 addresses were selected to receive the improved set of health insurance coverage items. The improved income questions were implemented using a split panel design. Approximately 68,000 addresses were selected to receive a set of income questions similar to those used in the 2013 CPS ASEC. The remaining 30,000 addresses were selected to receive the redesigned income questions. The source of the 2014 data for this figure is the CPS ASEC sample of 98,000 addresses. Prior to 2007, a second parent could only be identified if they were married to the first parent on the survey record. Prior to 2007, children with two unmarried parents in the household may be identified as "mother only" or "father only." Starting in 2007, a second parent identifier permits identification of two coresident parents, even if the parents are not married to each other.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure FAM1.B: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in various family arrangements, 2015
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in various family arrangements, 2015

a Includes children living with two stepparents.

NOTE: Data for 2015 exclude the nearly 276,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure FAM2.A: Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2014
Birth rates for unmarried women by age of mother, 1980–2014

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure FAM2.B: Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 1980 and 2014
Percentage of all births to unmarried women by age of mother, 1980 and 2014

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure FAM3.A: Primary child care arrangements for children ages 0–4 with employed mothers, selected years 1985–2011
Primary child care arrangements for children ages 0–4 with employed mothers, selected years 1985–2011

a Center-based care includes day care centers, nursery schools, preschools, and Head Start programs. Home-based care or other nonrelative care includes family day care providers, babysitters, nannies, friends, neighbors, and other nonrelatives providing care in either the child's or provider's home. Other relatives include siblings and other relatives. Mother care includes care by the mother while she worked. To see trends in individual child care arrangement types, refer to Laughlin, L. (2013). Who's minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Spring 2011. Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, P70–135.

NOTE: The primary arrangement is the arrangement used for the most number of hours per week while the mother worked. Mother and father care each refer to care while the mother worked.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.

Figure FAM3.B: Percentage of children ages 3–6, not yet in kindergarten, in center-based care arrangements by poverty level, selected years 1995–2012
Percentage of children ages 3–6, not yet in kindergarten, in center-based care arrangements by poverty level, selected years 1995–2012

NOTE: Center-based programs include day care centers, prekindergartens, nursery schools, Head Start programs, and other early childhood education programs.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.

Figure FAM3.C: Child care arrangements for grade school children ages 5–14 with employed mothers, 2011
Child care arrangements for grade school children ages 5–14 with employed mothers, 2011

NOTE: The number of children in all arrangements may exceed the total number of children due to the use of multiple arrangements. Mother and father care refer to care while the mother worked.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.

Figure FAM4: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 1994–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by nativity of child and parents, selected years 1994–2014

NOTE: Data for 2014 exclude the nearly 229,000 household residents under age 18 who were listed as family reference persons or spouses. The 2014 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) of the Current Population Survey (CPS) included redesigned questions for income and health insurance coverage. All of the approximately 98,000 addresses were selected to receive the improved set of health insurance coverage items. The improved income questions were implemented using a split panel design. Approximately 68,000 addresses were selected to receive a set of income questions similar to those used in the 2013 CPS ASEC. The remaining 30,000 addresses were selected to receive the redesigned income questions. The source of the 2014 data for this figure is the CPS ASEC sample of 98,000 addresses. Children living in households with no parents present are not shown in this figure but are included in the bases for the percentages. Native parents means that all of the parents the child lives with are native born. Foreign-born means that one or both of the child's parents are foreign born. Anyone with U.S. citizenship at birth is considered native, which includes people born in the United States or in U.S. outlying areas and people born abroad with at least one American parent. Foreign-born children with native parents are included in the native children with native parents category. Prior to 2007, CPS data identified only one parent on the child's record. This meant that a second parent could only be identified if he or she was married to the first parent. In 2007, a second parent identifier was added to the CPS. This permits identification of two coresident parents, even if the parents are not married to each other.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure FAM5: Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English, selected years 1979–2014
Percentage of children ages 5–17 who speak a language other than English at home and who have difficulty speaking English, selected years 1979–2014

NOTE: Numbers from the 1995 and 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS) may reflect changes in the survey because of newly instituted computer-assisted interviewing techniques and/or because of the change in the population controls to the 1990 Census-based estimates, with adjustments. A break is shown in the lines between 1999 and 2000 because data from 1979 to 1999 come from the CPS, while beginning in 2000 the data come from the American Community Survey (ACS). The questions were the same on the CPS and the ACS questionnaires.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey and American Community Survey.

Figure FAM7: Rate of substantiated maltreatment reports of children ages 0–17 by age, 1998–2014
Rate of substantiated maltreatment reports of children ages 0–17 by age, 1998–2014

NOTE: The count of child victims is based on the number of investigations and assessments by Child Protective Services that found the child to be a victim of one or more types of maltreatment. The count of victims is, therefore, a report-based count and a "duplicated count," since an individual child may have been maltreated more than once. The number of states reporting varies from year to year. States vary in their definition of abuse and neglect. Data since 2007 are not directly comparable with prior year's data differences may be partially attributed to changes in one state's procedures for determination of maltreatment.

SOURCE: Administration for Children and Families, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System.