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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2016

Education Figures

Figure 22: Average mathematics scale scores for 4th-grade students by race and Hispanic origin, 1990, 2013, and 2015
Average mathematics scale scores for 4th-grade students by race and Hispanic origin, 1990, 2013, and 2015

‡ Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).

NOTE: To assess progress in mathematics and reading, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures trends in the academic performance of U.S. students, including those in public and private schools. Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and English language learners were not permitted in 1990. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Figure 23: Average mathematics scale scores for 8th-grade students by race and Hispanic origin, 1990, 2013, and 2015
Average mathematics scale scores for 8th-grade students by race and Hispanic origin, 1990, 2013, and 2015

‡ Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).

NOTE: To assess progress in mathematics and reading, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures trends in the academic performance of U.S. students, including those in public and private schools. Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and English language learners were not permitted in 1990. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Figure 24: Percentage of young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2014
Percentage of young adults ages 18–24 who have completed high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2014

NOTE: From 1980 to 1991, high school completion was measured by the completion of 4 years of high school rather than the actual attainment of a high school diploma or equivalent. Diploma equivalents include alternative credentials obtained by passing exams such as the General Educational Development (GED) test. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, School Enrollment Supplement.

Figure 25: Percentage of high school completers who were enrolled in college the October immediately after completing high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2014
Percentage of high school completers who were enrolled in college the October immediately after completing high school by race and Hispanic origin, 1980–2014

NOTE: Enrollment in college, as of October of each year, is for individuals ages 16–24 who completed high school during the preceding 12 months. High school completion includes General Educational Development (GED) certificate recipients. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Due to some short-term data fluctuations associated with small sample sizes, moving averages are used to produce more stable estimates for racial and ethnic groups. A 3-year moving average is the weighted average of the estimates for the year prior to the reported year, the reported year, and the following year. For 2014, a 2-year moving average is used, reflecting an average of the 2013 and 2014 estimates. Beginning in 2003, those in a given racial category represent those reporting only that race. Data from 2003 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, School Enrollment Supplement.

Figure 26: Percentage of youth ages 16–19 who are neither enrolled in school nor working by race and Hispanic origin, 1985–2015
Percentage of youth ages 16–19 who are neither enrolled in school nor working by race and Hispanic origin, 1985–2015

NOTE: Data relate to the labor force and enrollment status of persons ages 16–19 in the civilian noninstitutionalized population during an "average" week of the school year. School refers to both high school and college. Data on race and Hispanic origin from 2003 onward are collected separately and combined for reporting according to 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. For data prior to 2003, 1977 OMB Standards were used. Data from 2003 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Beginning in 2003, those in each racial category represent those reporting only one race. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Figure ED1: Percentage of children ages 3–5 who were read to three or more times in the last week by a family member by mother's education, selected years 1993–2012
Percentage of children ages 3–5 who were read to three or more times in the last week by a family member by mother's education, selected years 1993–2012

NOTE: Estimates are based on children ages 3–5 who have yet to enter kindergarten. Children without mothers in the home are not included in estimates. While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 was a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire that was mailed to respondents. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Surveys Program.

Figure ED2.A: Average mathematics scale scores for students in grades 4, 8, and 12, selected years 1990–2015
Average mathematics scale scores for students in grades 4, 8, and 12, selected years 1990–2015

NOTE: The 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015 assessments only included data for grades 4 and 8. After 2000, assessment results for grade 12 are not comparable with those from previous assessment years. In the early years of the assessment, testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and limited-English-proficient students were not permitted. In 1996, scores are provided for both the assessments with and without accommodations to show comparability across the assessments.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Figure ED2.B: Average mathematics scale scores for students in grade 12 by race and Hispanic origin, 2005, 2009, and 2013
Average mathematics scale scores for students in grade 12 by race and Hispanic origin, 2005, 2009, and 2013

NOTE: The framework for the 12th-grade mathematics assessment was revised in 2005; as a result, scores from 2005 and later cannot be compared with those from previous years. Among other changes, the framework was revised by merging the measurement and geometry content areas into one and by adding questions on algebra, data analysis, and probability. For more details, see Grigg, W., Donahue, P., and Dion, G. (2007). The Nation's Report Card: 12th-grade reading and mathematics 2005 (NCES 2007-468). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Figure ED2.C: Average reading scale scores for students in grades 4, 8, and 12, selected years 1992–2015
Average reading scale scores for students in grades 4, 8, and 12, selected years 1992–2015

NOTE: The 2000 assessment only included data for grade 4, and the 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015 assessments only included data for grades 4 and 8. In the early years of the assessment, testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and limited-English-proficient students were not permitted. In 1998, scores are provided for both the assessments with and without accommodations to show comparability across the assessments.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Figure ED3: Percentage of high school graduates who had completed selected coursework in mathematics, science, and foreign language, selected years 1982–2009
Percentage of high school graduates who had completed selected coursework in mathematics, science, and foreign language, selected years 1982–2009

NOTE: Data reflect only the percentage of graduates who earned credit for each course while in high school and do not count those graduates who took these courses prior to entering high school. "Algebra II" includes courses in which trigonometry or geometry has been combined with algebra II. The percentage for "biology and chemistry" indicates the percentage of graduates who completed at least one credit each in a biology and a chemistry course. The percentage for "biology, chemistry, and physics" indicates the percentage of graduates who had completed at least one course each in a biology, a chemistry, and a physics course. "Foreign language" includes a year 3, year 4, or advanced placement/international baccalaureate/honors course.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Transcript Studies: High School and Beyond Study of 1980 Sophomores, and National Assessment of Educational Progress Transcript Study.