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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2016

Economic Circumstances Figures

Figure 5: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and family structure, 1980–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and family structure, 1980–2014

NOTE: This indicator is based on the official poverty measure for the United States as defined in Office of Management and Budget Statistical Policy Directive 14. In 2014, the poverty threshold for a two-parent, two-child family was $24,008. The income measure in the Current Population Survey (CPS) has been redesigned. The source for the traditional income is the portion of the 2014 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) sample (about 68,000 households) that received a set of income questions similar to those used in 2013. The source for the redesigned income is the portion of the 2014 CPS ASEC sample (about 30,000 households) that received the redesigned income questions. The 2014 CPS ASEC included redesigned questions for income that were implemented to a subsample of the 98,000 addresses using a probability split panel design. The redesigned income questions were used for the entire 2015 CPS ASEC sample. The proportion of children in male householder families (no spouse present) historically has been small. Selected data for this group are available as part of the detailed tables at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/index.html.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure 6: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in poverty by race and Hispanic origin and type of poverty measure, 2014

NOTE: These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population. The abbreviation NH refers to non-Hispanic.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure 7: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year round, full time by family structure and race and Hispanic origin, 2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year round, full time by family structure and race and Hispanic origin, 2014

NOTE: The abbreviation NH refers to non-Hispanic origin. Year-round, full-time employment is defined as usually working full time (35 hours or more per week) for 50 to 52 weeks. Children living with a single mother or single father includes some families in which both parents are present in the household but are unmarried partners.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure 8: Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by race and Hispanic origin of household reference person, 2001–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by race and Hispanic origin of household reference person, 2001–2014

NOTE: Food-insecure households are those in which either adults, children, or both were "food insecure," meaning that, at times, they were unable to acquire adequate food for active, healthy living because the household had insufficient money and other resources for food. Race and Hispanic origin are those of the household reference person. The revised 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were implemented in 2003. Included in the total, but not shown separately, are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and "Two or more races." From 2003 onward, statistics for White, non-Hispanics and Black, non-Hispanics exclude persons who indicated "Two or more races." Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement; tabulated by Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service and Food and Nutrition Service.

Figure ECON1.B: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty line, 1980–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty line, 1980–2014

NOTE: The graph shows income categories derived from the ratio of a family's income to the family's poverty threshold. In 2014, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,008. For example, a family of four with two children would be living below 50 percent of the poverty threshold if their income was less than $12,004 (50 percent of $24,008). If the same family's income was at least $24,008 but less than $48,016, the family would be living at 100–199 percent of the poverty threshold. The source of data for 2013 is the portion of the 2014 CPS ASEC sample (about 30,000 households) that received the redesigned income questions. The redesigned income questions were used for the entire 2015 CPS ASEC sample.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure ECON2: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year round, full time by family structure, 1980–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living with at least one parent employed year round, full time by family structure, 1980–2014

NOTE: In 2013, the income measure in the Current Population Survey (CPS) was redesigned. The source of the calendar year 2013 data for this table is the portion of the 2014 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) sample that received income questions consistent with the 2013 CPS ASEC. Beginning in 2014, income and poverty data from the ASEC are based on a redesigned questionnaire and differ from the income and poverty data shown in this table for earlier years.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure ECON3: Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by poverty status, selected years 1995–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 in food-insecure households by poverty status, selected years 1995–2014

NOTE: Food-insecure households are those in which either adults or children or both were "food insecure" meaning that, at times, they were unable to acquire adequate food for active, healthy living because the household had insufficient money and other resources for food. Statistics for 1996–1998 and 2000 are omitted because they are not directly comparable with those for other years.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement; tabulated by Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service and Food and Nutrition Service.