ChildStats.gov—Forum on Child and Family Statistics
faces of children
Home  |  About the Forum  |  Publications  |  Help
Search

America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2017

Frequency of 3rd-Graders Victimizing Their Peers

Students are identified in this feature as perpetrators of peer victimization if their teacher reported that the students "Often" or "Very often" (i.e., frequently) victimized their peers in at least one of four types of incidents: (1) teasing, making fun of, or calling other students names; (2) telling lies or untrue stories about other students; (3) pushing, shoving, slapping, hitting, or kicking other students; and (4) excluding other students from play on purpose. Students are not identified as perpetrators if their teacher reported that they "Sometimes," "Rarely," or "Never" victimized their peers through any of the types of incidents. Although these types of actions typically are associated with bullying behaviors, the data in this study were not evaluated with respect to the ongoing nature of the actions and whether they represented a power differential. As a result, the peer victimization reported here cannot be considered to be synonymous with bullying.

Indicator SPECIAL1: Percentage distribution of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners by frequency with which the teacher reported that they victimized their peers in 3rd grade and type of victimization, spring 2014
Indicator SPECIAL1: Percentage distribution of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners by frequency with which the teacher reported that they victimized their peers in 3rd grade and type of victimization, spring 2014

a Children whose teachers reported that they perpetrated more than one type of victimization are counted only once in the total percentage of children who perpetrated any type of victimization.

NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C27P_7T70. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. In 2013–14, most of the children were in 3rd grade, but 6 percent were in 2nd grade or other grades (e.g., 4th grade, ungraded classrooms). Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–3rd Grade Restricted-Use Data file.

  • In the spring of 2014, about 6 percent of 3rd-graders were identified as perpetrators of at least one of the four types of peer victimization incidents. five percent frequently teased, made fun of, or called other students names; 3 percent frequently told lies or untrue stories about other students; 2 percent frequently pushed, shoved, slapped, hit, or kicked other students; and 2 percent frequently excluded other students from play on purpose.

There were differences in the characteristics of students who were identified by their teachers as frequent perpetrators of peer victimization. The following figures present some of these differences by student characteristics, such as race and ethnicity, poverty status, and parental education, as well as by school characteristics.

Indicator SPECIAL2: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and student race and Hispanic origin, spring 2014
Indicator SPECIAL2: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and student race and Hispanic origin, spring 2014

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 percent and 50 percent.

‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the CV is 50 percent or greater.

NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C27P_7T70. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. In 2013–14, most of the children were in 3rd grade, but 6 percent were in 2nd grade or other grades (e.g., 4th grade, ungraded classrooms). Estimates for non-Hispanic Pacific Islanders and American Indian/Alaska Natives are excluded from the figure due to small sample sizes.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–3rd Grade Restricted-Use Data file.

  • For all four types of incidents, higher percentages of Black, non-Hispanic 3rd-graders than of White, non-Hispanic and Hispanic 3rd-graders were identified as perpetrators.173 For instance, 6 percent of Black, non-Hispanic 3rd-graders were reported to have frequently excluded other students from play on purpose, compared with 2 percent each of White, non-Hispanic and Hispanic 3rd-graders. With respect to teasing, making fun of, or calling other students names, the percentages of perpetrators were higher for Black, non-Hispanic 3rd-graders (13 percent) than for 3rd-graders who were White, non-Hispanic (3 percent); Hispanic (4 percent); Asian, non-Hispanic (1 percent); and of Two or more races, non-Hispanic (6 percent). The percentages for 3rd-graders who teased, made fun of, or called students names and who were White, non-Hispanic; Hispanic; and of Two or more races, non-Hispanic were also higher than the percentage for Asian, non-Hispanic 3rd-graders.
  • Higher percentages of male than of female 3rd-graders were identified as perpetrators who frequently teased, made fun of, or called other students names (7 percent versus 3 percent); told lies or untrue stories about other students (4 percent versus 2 percent); and pushed, shoved, slapped, hit, or kicked other students (3 percent versus 1 percent).

Indicator SPECIAL3: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and household poverty status, spring 2014
Indicator SPECIAL3: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and household poverty status, spring 2014

NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C27P_7T70. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. In 2013–14, most of the children were in 3rd grade, but 6 percent were in 2nd grade or other grades (e.g., 4th grade, ungraded classrooms). Poverty status is based on U.S. Census weighted average income thresholds for 2013, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $18,552 in 2013.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–3rd Grade Restricted-Use Data file.

Indicator SPECIAL4: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently teased, made fun of, or called other students names in 3rd grade, by parents' highest level of education, spring 2014
Indicator SPECIAL4: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently teased, made fun of, or called other students names in 3rd grade, by parents' highest level of education, spring 2014

NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C27P_7T70. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. In 2013–14, most of the children were in 3rd grade, but 6 percent were in 2nd grade or other grades (e.g., 4th grade, ungraded classrooms).

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–3rd Grade Restricted-Use Data file.

  • For all four types of incidents, higher percentages of 3rd-graders living below the poverty threshold or living between 100 percent and 199 percent of the poverty threshold were identified as perpetrators compared with children who were living at 200 percent or more of the poverty threshold. For instance, 5 percent of children living below the poverty threshold and 3 percent of children living between 100 percent and 199 percent of the poverty threshold were reported to frequently push, shove, slap, hit, or kick other students, compared with 1 percent of children living at 200 percent or more of the poverty threshold.
  • The percentages of 3rd-graders who were identified as perpetrators tended to be higher for students whose parents had lower levels of educational attainment. For instance, 6 percent each of students whose parents' highest level of education was less than high school, high school completion, or some college/vocational education were reported to frequently tease, make fun of, or call other students names, compared with 3 percent each of those whose parents' highest level of education was either a bachelor's degree or any graduate education.

Indicator SPECIAL5: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and school locale, spring 2014
Indicator SPECIAL5: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and school locale, spring 2014

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 percent and 50 percent.

‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the CV is 50 percent or greater.

NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C27P_7T70. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. In 2013–14, most of the children were in 3rd grade, but 6 percent were in 2nd grade or other grades (e.g., 4th grade, ungraded classrooms).

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–3rd Grade Restricted-Use Data file.

Indicator SPECIAL6: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and school control, spring 2014
Indicator SPECIAL6: Percentage of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners whose teachers reported that they frequently victimized their peers in 3rd grade by type of victimization and school control, spring 2014

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 percent and 50 percent.

NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C27P_7T70. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. In 2013–14, most of the children were in 3rd grade, but 6 percent were in 2nd grade or other grades (e.g., 4th grade, ungraded classrooms).

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–3rd Grade Restricted-Use Data file.

  • Higher percentages of 3rd-graders from city schools than from suburban schools were identified as frequently teasing, making fun of, or calling other students names (6 percent versus 4 percent); telling lies or untrue stories about other students (4 percent versus 3 percent); and excluding other students from play on purpose (3 percent versus 2 percent). In addition, the percentage of 3rd-graders who frequently pushed, shoved, slapped, hit, or kicked other students was higher for students from city schools (3 percent) than for those from suburban and rural schools (2 percent each).
  • Higher percentages of 3rd-graders from public schools than from private schools were identified as frequently telling lies or untrue stories about other students (3 percent versus 1 percent) and pushing, shoving, slapping, hitting, or kicking other students (2 percent versus 1 percent).

table icon SPECIAL1 HTML Table | SPECIAL2 HTML Table

173For some peer victimization estimates, large percentage differences may not be significantly different due to small sample sizes or large coefficients of variation.