Children living in poverty are vulnerable to environmental, educational, health, and safety risks. Compared with their peers, children living in poverty are more likely to have cognitive, behavioral, and socioemotional difficulties. Throughout their lifetimes, they are more likely to complete fewer years of school and experience more years of unemployment.18, 19, 20, 21 These data are based on the official poverty measure for the United States as defined in U.S. Office of Management and Budget Statistical Policy Directive 14.22
NOTE: NH = non-Hispanic origin and AIAN = American Indian or Alaska Native. In 2018, the poverty threshold for a two-parent, two-child family was $25,465. The 1997 U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards on race and ethnicity are used to classify persons into one of the following five racial groups: White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Federal surveys give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Black may be defined as those who reported Black and no other race or those who report Black regardless of whether they also report another race. This indicator shows data using the first approach. Included in the total, but not shown separately, are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, people reporting some other race, or people reporting two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. The OMB classifies counties as within a metropolitan or a micropolitan statistical area. The remaining counties are not classified and are considered rural in this report. Rural counties may include small urban areas, as well as completely rural areas. Nonmetropolitan counties include counties in micropolitan statistical and rural areas. The U.S. Census Bureau reviewed this data product for unauthorized disclosure of confidential information and has approved the disclosure avoidance practices applied to this release. CBDRB-FY2020-POP001-0123.
SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey
19 Duncan, G., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Press.
20 Wagmiller, R. L., Jr., Lennon, M. C., Kuang, L., Alberti, P. M., & Aber, J. L. (2006). The dynamics of economic disadvantage and children's life changes. American Sociological Review, 71(5), 847–866. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100507
21 Dahl, G., & Lochner, L. (2008). The impact of family income on child achievement: Evidence from the earned income tax credit (NBER Working Paper No. 14599). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w14599.pdf
22 Following U.S. Office of Management and Budget Statistical Policy Directive 14, poverty status is determined by comparing a family's (or an unrelated individual's) income to one of 48 dollar amounts called thresholds. The thresholds vary by the size of the family and the members' ages. In 2018, the poverty threshold for a family with two adults and two children was $25,465. For further details, see https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html.