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America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2018

Brief Figures

Figure 1: Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty threshold, 1980–2016
Percentage of children ages 0–17 by family income relative to the poverty threshold, 1980–2016

NOTE: The income categories were derived from the ratio of a family's income to the family's poverty threshold. In 2016, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,339. The source of the calendar year 2013 data for this figure is the portion of the 2014 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) sample that received income questions consistent with the 2013 CPS ASEC. Data for calendar year 2014 and onward used the redesigned income questions. Users should use caution when comparing 2013 data to 2014 data.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Figure 2: Health insurance coverage among children ages 0–17 by health insurance duration, 2005–2006 through 2015–2016
Health insurance coverage among children ages 0–17 by health insurance duration, 2005–2006 through 2015–2016

NOTE: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Chronically uninsured is defined as those without insurance for 1 year or more.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure 3: Percentage of children ages 0–17 who delayed or did not receive medical care or had no health care visits in the past 12 months by health insurance duration, 2015–2016
Percentage of children ages 0–17 who delayed or did not receive medical care or had no health care visits in the past 12 months by health insurance duration, 2015–2016

NOTE: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Chronically uninsured is defined as those without insurance for 1 year or more. Visits to emergency rooms, hospitalizations, home visits, dental offices, and telephone calls are excluded.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Figure 4: Percentage of public school students who were identified as homeless by school district locale, school year 2015–16
Percentage of public school students who were identified as homeless by school district locale, school year 2015–16

NOTE: Homeless students are defined as children or youth who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, including those in unsheltered situations, shelters or other temporary housing, hotels or motels, or doubled-up or sharing housing. For more information, see "C118 – Homeless Students Enrolled" at https://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/edfacts/sy-15-16-nonxml.html.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source); and Common Core of Data.

Figure 5: Percentage distribution of public school students who were identified as homeless, by primary nighttime residence, school year 2015–16
Percentage distribution of public school students who were identified as homeless, by primary nighttime residence, school year 2015–16

NOTE: Homeless students are defined as children or youth who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, including those in unsheltered situations, shelters or other temporary housing, hotels or motels, or doubled-up or sharing housing. For more information, see "C118 – Homeless Students Enrolled" at https://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/edfacts/sy-15-16-nonxml.html. Detail does not sum to total due to rounding as well as missing data on primary nighttime residence.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source); and Common Core of Data.

Figure 6: Percentage of children ages 0–17 with past-year and lifetime exposure to categories of violence, crime, and abuse, 2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 with past-year and lifetime exposure to categories of violence, crime, and abuse, 2014

NOTE: Physical assault in this figure includes any use of physical force with the intent to cause pain or harm, with or without a weapon. It also includes kidnapping and bias attacks. It excludes threats, physical intimidation, relational aggression, and Internet harassment. Sexual victimization includes sexual assault by known/unknown adult, victimization by peer/sibling, forced sex, exposure or "flashing," sexual harassment, and statutory rape/sexual misconduct. Child maltreatment includes physical or emotional abuse by caregiver, neglect, and custodial interference/family abduction. Property crime in this survey includes robbery, theft/larceny, and vandalism. Witnessing violence includes any direct witnessing of family or community violence. It excludes indirect exposure to violence, crime, and abuse.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.

Figure 7: Percentage of prescription opioid misuse and use disorders in the past year among youth ages 12–17 by sex and race and Hispanic origin, 2016
Percentage of prescription opioid misuse and use disorders in the past year among youth ages 12–17 by sex and race and Hispanic origin, 2016

NOTE: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health defined misuse of prescription opioids as "in any way that a doctor did not direct you to use them, including (1) use without a prescription of your own; (2) use in greater amounts, more often, or longer than you were told to take them; or (3) use in any other way a doctor did not direct you to use them." Past-year prescription opioid use disorders were defined based on the 11 diagnostic criteria for prescription opioid dependence or abuse as specified in the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). These included symptoms such as withdrawal, tolerance, use in dangerous situations, trouble with the law, and interference with major obligations at work, school, or home during the past 12 months.

SOURCE: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Figure 8: Percentage distribution of the source of prescription opioids obtained for the most recent misuse among youth ages 12–17 with past-year prescription opioid misuse, 2015 and 2016
Percentage distribution of the source of prescription opioids obtained for the most recent misuse among youth ages 12–17 with past-year prescription opioid misuse, 2015 and 2016

NOTE: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health defined misuse of prescription opioids as "in any way that a doctor did not direct you to use them, including (1) use without a prescription of your own; (2) use in greater amounts, more often, or longer than you were told to take them; or (3) use in any other way a doctor did not direct you to use them." The source of prescription opioids for the most recent episode of misuse was determined by asking respondents to respond to a multiple-choice question that offered the following options: given by a friend/relative for free, prescribed by physician(s), stolen from a friend/relative, bought from a friend/relative, bought from a drug dealer/stranger, or other way.

SOURCE: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Figure 9: Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in placement per 100,000 juveniles) by sex, selected years 1997–2015
Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in placement per 100,000 juveniles) by sex, selected years 1997–2015

NOTE: Residential placement rate calculated per 100,000 persons age 10 through the upper age at which offenders were under original jurisdiction of the juvenile courts in each state in the given year.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement.

  • The overall residential placement rate fell from 356 per 100,000 juveniles in 1997 to 152 per 100,000 in 2015.
  • Between 1997 and 2015, residential placement rates declined for both males (from 599 to 253 per 100,000) and females (from 99 to 47 per 100,000) to their lowest recorded levels.
  • The residential placement rate was much higher for males than for females. In 2015, the residential placement rate for males (253 per 100,000) was five times the rate for females (47 per 100,000).

Figure 10: Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in placement per 100,000 juveniles) by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1997–2015
Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in placement per 100,000 juveniles) by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1997–2015

NOTE: The abbreviation NH refers to non-Hispanic origin. Residential placement rate calculated per 100,000 persons age 10 through the upper age at which offenders were under original jurisdiction of the juvenile courts in each state in the given year. In each survey, a single-question format (approved by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget) was used to collect information from juvenile residential facilities' administrative record systems about their residents' race and ethnicity. Data are reported in the following groups: White, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, or Two or More Races. The Hispanic category includes persons of Latin American or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. These persons are not included in the other race categories. For presentation purposes, the Asian race category includes Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement.