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Special1. Early skills and knowledge: Children's reading, mathematics, and science scale scores, and approaches to learning scores in the first year of kindergarten by selected characteristics: 2010–11

excel icon SPECIAL Excel Table

Characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distribution of children Average kindergarten reading scorea Average mathematics scoreb Average spring science scorec Average approaches to learning scored
Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring
Total 3,473 100.0 34.7 49.5 29.3 42.0 11.4 2.9 3.1
Standard deviation of score 11.7 11.7 10.7 11.2 2.8 0.7 0.7
Gender
Male 1,780 51.2 34.0 48.5 29.4 42.0 11.4 2.8 2.9
Female 1,693 48.8 35.4 50.5 29.2 42.0 11.3 3.1 3.3
Age of child at kindergarten entry in fall 2010
Less than 5 years old 147 4.2 31.0 44.9 24.7 36.9 10.2 2.8 3.0
5 years old to 5 1/2 years old 1,479 42.6 32.9 47.9 26.9 39.9 10.9 2.9 3.0
More than 5 1/2 years old to 6 years old 1,536 44.2 36.0 50.8 31.1 43.7 11.8 3.0 3.2
More than 6 years old 312 9.0 38.3 52.6 34.1 46.3 12.2 3.1 3.2
Race and Hispanic origin of childe
White, non-Hispanic 1,844 53.1 36.6 51.6 31.7 44.6 12.4 3.0 3.1
Black, non-Hispanic 458 13.2 32.9 47.1 25.8 37.5 10.0 2.8 2.9
American Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 43 ! 1.2 ! 31.1 46.0 26.3 40.2 11.5 2.9 3.1
Asian, non-Hispanic 143 4.1 40.5 54.0 34.6 46.0 10.8 3.1 3.2
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 13 0.4 31.5 48.0 27.4 40.8 9.9 2.8 3.0
Two or more races, non-Hispanic 148 4.3 36.2 50.9 30.5 43.2 12.0 3.0 3.1
Hispanic 822 23.7 30.3 45.4 24.7 37.9 9.7 2.9 3.1
Primary type of nonparental care arrangement prior to kindergarten entryf
No regular nonparental arrangement 699 20.9 31.7 47.3 26.3 39.8 10.7 2.9 3.1
Home-based care
Relative care 499 14.9 32.4 48.2 27.3 40.3 11.0 2.9 3.1
Nonrelative care 212 6.3 35.3 50.8 31.3 44.5 12.0 3.0 3.2
Center-based care 1,850 55.3 36.4 50.6 30.8 43.1 11.6 3.0 3.1
Multiple arrangements 84 2.5 36.6 50.9 31.2 43.3 12.0 3.0 3.1
Parents' employment status in fall 2010g
Two parents
Both full-time (35 hours or more) 787 25.7 37.4 52.2 32.1 44.8 12.0 3.0 3.2
One full-time, one part-time 505 16.5 37.3 52.1 32.3 44.9 12.2 3.1 3.2
One full-time, one looking for work 130 4.3 32.7 48.2 27.3 40.3 10.9 2.9 3.1
One full-time, one not in the labor force 737 24.1 35.6 50.1 30.2 42.9 11.6 3.0 3.2
Other combination 203 6.5 31.4 46.4 25.7 38.7 10.5 2.9 3.0
Single parent
Full-time (35 hours or more) 328 10.7 32.9 47.5 26.9 39.3 10.8 2.8 3.0
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 127 4.2 31.7 46.7 26.5 38.7 10.7 2.9 3.0
Looking for work 106 3.5 29.4 44.4 24.0 36.5 10.2 2.7 2.9
Not in the labor force 123 4.0 30.0 44.3 24.1 36.8 10.2 2.7 2.8
Other parents 69 2.3 30.5 45.5 24.6 37.3 10.7 2.7 2.8
Parents' highest level of educationh
Less than high school 309 8.9 26.3 41.5 21.0 34.3 8.7 2.8 3.0
High school diploma or equivalent 707 20.4 29.9 45.2 24.7 37.4 10.2 2.8 3.0
Some college/vocational 1,122 32.4 33.7 48.7 28.4 41.1 11.3 2.9 3.0
Bachelor's degree 694 20.0 38.4 52.9 33.1 45.8 12.3 3.1 3.2
Any graduate education 630 18.2 41.6 55.5 35.7 48.1 12.8 3.1 3.3
Family type in fall 2010
Two-parent household 2,433 75.6 36.0 50.7 30.7 43.4 11.7 3.0 3.2
Mother-only household 667 20.7 31.6 46.2 25.9 38.3 10.5 2.8 2.9
Father-only household 49 1.5 31.8 46.7 26.3 39.2 11.5 2.8 2.9
Other family type 69 2.2 30.5 45.5 24.6 37.3 10.7 2.7 2.8
Primary home languagei
English 2,910 84.0 35.6 50.5 30.2 42.9 11.8 2.9 3.1
Non-English 514 14.8 29.4 44.2 24.1 37.3 8.8 2.9 3.1
Primary language not identified 39 1.1 31.3 46.8 25.8 38.3 9.6 2.8 3.0
Poverty status in spring 2011j
Below 100% of poverty 707 24.7 29.6 44.4 24.1 36.8 9.8 2.8 2.9
100–199% of poverty 636 22.2 33.4 48.4 27.9 40.6 11.1 2.9 3.1
200% of poverty and above 1,519 53.1 38.6 53.1 33.3 45.9 12.5 3.1 3.2
Socioeconomic statusk
Lowest 20 percent 645 18.6 27.8 42.8 22.3 35.3 9.3 2.8 3.0
Middle 60 percent 2,102 60.7 34.4 49.4 29.1 41.9 11.4 2.9 3.1
Highest 20 percent 715 20.6 41.7 55.6 35.9 48.3 12.9 3.1 3.3
School type in fall 2010
Public 3,074 88.5 34.3 49.1 28.8 41.5 11.2 2.9 3.1
Private 399 11.5 37.9 52.1 32.9 45.8 12.3 3.1 3.2
† Not applicable.
! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
a Reflects performance on questions measuring basic skills (print familiarity, letter recognition, beginning and ending sounds, rhyming words, word recognition), vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension (including locate/recall questions, integrate/interpret questions, and critique/evaluate questions about text the children were asked to read). Potential scores range from 0 to 83.
b Reflects performance on questions on number sense, properties, and operations; measurement; geometry and spatial sense; data analysis, statistics, and probability; and pre-algebra skills such as identification of patterns. Potential scores range from 0 to 75.
c Science was only assessed in the spring of kindergarten. Reflects performance on questions on physical sciences, life sciences, environmental sciences, and scientific inquiry. Potential scores range from 0 to 20.
d The approaches to learning scale is based on teachers' reports on how students rate in seven areas: attentiveness, task persistence, eagerness to learn, learning independence, flexibility, organization, and ability to follow classroom rules. Potential scores range from 1 to 4, with higher scores indicating that a child exhibits positive learning behaviors more often.
e According to the revised 1997 OMB standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Those reporting more than one race were classified as “Two or more races.” Those in a given racial category represent those reporting only that race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
f The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours. "Multiple arrangements" refers to children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
g Two parents includes two biological parents, two adoptive parents, and one biological/adoptive parent and one other parent/partner. One parent refers to one biological or adoptive parent only. Other refers to related and/or unrelated guardians.
h Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a two-parent household or by the only parent or guardian in a single-parent household.
i Primary home language was asked of the parent interview respondent. In some instances, children lived in a home where more than one language, including English, was spoken and the parent respondent could not choose a primary language. These children are coded in a third category indicating that a primary language was not identified. Children whose parents indicated they spoke more than one language equally are in the third category.
j Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given size. For example, in 2010, a family of two was below the poverty threshold if its income was lower than $14,220.
k Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and household income. SES was computed at the household level using data from parents who completed the parent interview and reflects the socioeconomic status of the household at the time of data collection.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W1_2P0. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010-11 school year. Unless otherwise noted, row variables were collected in the fall of 2010 and supplemented in the spring of 2011 for fall 2010 nonrespondents. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Restricted-Use Kindergarten Data File.