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PHY2.A Environmental tobacco smoke: Percentage of children ages 4–17 with specified blood cotinine levels by age, selected years 1988–2012

excel icon PHY2A Excel Table

Characteristic 1988–1994 1999–2000 2001–2002 2003–2004 2005–2006 2007–2008 2009–2010 2011–2012
Ages 4–17
Total
Any detectable cotinine at or above 0.05 ng/mL 87.4 64.2 52.6 61.1 48.9 50.0 39.6 37.3
Blood cotinine above 1.0 ng/mL 23.7 16.9 16.1 17.1 11.6 15.3 9.0 8.1
Ages 4–11
Total
Any detectable cotinine at or above 0.05 ng/mL 87.7 64.4 55.1 63.7 51.4 52.6 41.7 40.5
Blood cotinine above 1.0 ng/mL 25.7 17.7 18.1 18.7 12.3 16.7 9.4 9.7
Ages 12–17
Total
Any detectable cotinine at or above 0.05 ng/mL 87.0 63.9 49.6 57.9 46.0 47.0 37.2 33.8
Blood cotinine above 1.0 ng/mL 21.1 16.0 13.6 15.0 10.8 13.7 8.4 6.3
NOTE: Cotinine levels are reported for nonsmoking children only (non-smoker defined as those with cotinine less than or equal to 10 ng/mL). "Any detectable cotinine" indicates blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), the detectable level of cotinine in the blood in 1988–1994. The average (geometric mean) blood cotinine level in children living in homes where someone smoked was 1.0 ng/mL in 1988–19941 and in 2003–2006.2
SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
1 Mannino, D.M., Caraballo, R., Benowitz, N., and Repace, J. (2001). Predictors of cotinine levels in U.S. children: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. CHEST, 120, 718–724.
2 Marano, C., Schober, S.E., Brody, D.J., and Zhang, C. (2009). Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among children and adolescents: United States, 2003–2006. Pediatrics, 124(5): 1299–1305.