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ED2.A/B Mathematics and reading achievement: Average mathematics scale scores of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-graders by child and family characteristics, selected years 1990–2015

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Characteristic 1990a 1992a 1996a 1996 2000 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015
4th-graders
Total 213 220 224 224 226 235 238 240 240 241 242 240
Gender
Male 214 221 226 224 227 236 239 241 241 241 242 241
Female 213 219 222 223 224 233 237 239 239 240 241 239
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 220 227 231 232 234 243 246 248 248 249 250 248
Black, non-Hispanic 188 193 199 198 203 216 220 222 222 224 224 224
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 217 208 223 226 228 225 225 227 227
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 225 231 226 229 246 251 253 255 256 258 257
Asian, non-Hispanicc 257 259 259
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 236 236 231
Hispanic 200 202 205 207 208 222 226 227 227 229 231 230
8th-graders
Total 263 268 272 270 273 278 279 281 283 284 285 282
Gender
Male 263 268 272 271 274 278 280 282 284 284 285 282
Female 262 269 272 269 272 277 278 280 282 283 284 282
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 270 277 281 281 284 288 289 291 293 293 294 292
Black, non-Hispanic 237 237 242 240 244 252 255 260 261 262 263 260
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 259 263 264 264 266 265 269 267
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 275 290 288 291 295 297 301 303 306 306
Asian, non-Hispanicc 305 309 307
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 269 275 276
Hispanic 246 249 251 251 253 259 262 265 266 270 272 270
Parents' educationd
Less than high school 242 249 254 250 253 257 259 263 265 265 267 265
High school diploma or equivalent 255 257 261 260 261 267 267 270 270 271 270 268
Some education after high school 267 271 279 277 277 280 280 283 284 285 285 282
Bachelor's degree or higher 274 281 282 281 286 288 290 292 295 295 296 294
12th-graders
Total 294 299 304 302 300 150e 153e 153e
Gender
Male 297 301 305 303 302 151e 155e 155e
Female 291 298 303 300 299 149e 152e 152e
Race and Hispanic originb
White, non-Hispanic 300 305 311 309 307 157e 161e 162e
Black, non-Hispanic 268 275 280 275 273 127e 131e 132e
American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic 284 294 134e 144e 142e
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 311 312 312 305 315 163e 175e 172e
Asian, non-Hispanicc 174e
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanicc 151e
Hispanic 276 286 287 284 282 133e 138e 141e
Parents' educationd
Less than high school 272 278 282 280 278 130e 135e 137e
High school diploma or equivalent 283 288 294 290 287 138e 142e 139e
Some education after high school 297 299 302 302 299 148e 150e 152e
Bachelor's degree or higher 306 311 314 313 312 161e 164e 164e
— Not available.
‡ Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
a Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and limited-English-proficient students were not permitted.
b For data before 2003, the 1977 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity were used to classify persons into one of the following four racial groups: White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Asian or Pacific Islander. The revised 1997 OMB Standards were used for data from 2003 and later years. Under these standards, persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Those reporting more than one race were classified as “Two or more races.” For 2003 and after, when separate reporting was possible, respondents who reported being Asian or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander were combined for continuity purposes. Also, beginning in 2003, those in a given racial category represent those reporting only that race. Data from 2003 onward are not directly comparable with data from earlier years. Included in the total but not shown separately are respondents who selected two or more races. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
c For assessment years prior to 2011, separate data for Asians and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were not collected.
d Parents’ education is the highest educational attainment of either parent. Data on parents’ education are not reliable for 4th-graders.
e In 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015, the mathematics assessment was not conducted at grade 12. The National Governing Board introduced changes in the National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics framework in both the assessment content and administration for assessments beginning in 2005. In addition, the results of the revised assessment are placed on a scale of 0–300, unlike previous assessments, which were placed on a scale of 0–500. Thus, the 12th-grade assessment results from 2005 onward cannot be compared with those of previous assessments.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress.