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America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2013

Physical Environment and Safety Figures

Indicator Phy1.A: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards, 1999–2011
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards, 1999–2011

NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of children living in counties where measured air pollution concentrations were higher than the level of a Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard at least once during the year. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) periodically reviews air quality standards and may change them based on updated scientific findings. The indicator is calculated with reference to the current levels of the air quality standards for all years shown, except that the revision to the PM2.5 annual standard promulgated in December 2012 has not been incorporated into this analysis. Measuring concentrations above the level of a standard is not equivalent to violating the standard. The level of a standard may be exceeded on multiple days before the exceedance is considered a violation of the standard. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values have been recalculated based on updated Census population data and updated data in the Air Quality System. For more information on the air quality standards that are used in calculating these percentages, please see http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Air Quality System.

Indicator Phy2.A: Percentage of children ages 4–11 with specified blood cotinine levels, selected years 1988–2010
Percentage of children ages 4–11 with specified blood cotinine levels, selected years 1988–2010

NOTE: Cotinine levels are reported for nonsmoking children only. "Any detectable cotinine" indicates blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), the detectable level of cotinine in the blood in 1988–1994. The average (geometric mean) blood cotinine level in children living in homes where someone smoked was 1.0 ng/mL in 1988–199456 and in 2003–2006.57

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Indicator Phy2.B: Percentage of children ages 0–6 living in homes where someone smoked regularly by poverty status, 1994, 2005, and 2010
Percentage of children ages 0–6 living in homes where someone smoked regularly by poverty status, 1994, 2005, and 2010

NOTE: A home where someone smoked regularly is defined as one in which smoking by a resident occurred 4 or more days per week.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Indicator Phy3: Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2011
Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2011

NOTE: Revisions to the following standards were made between 2002 and 2006: disinfection byproducts (2002 for larger systems and 2004 for smaller systems), surface water treatment (2002), radionuclides (2003), and arsenic (included in the Chemical and radionuclide category, in 2006). No other revisions to the standards have taken effect during the period of trend data (beginning with 1993). Indicator values reflect the standards in place for each year depicted. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values for years prior to 2011 have been recalculated based on updated data in the Safe Drinking Water Information System.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Safe Drinking Water Information System.

Indicator Phy4.A: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2010
Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2010

NOTE: The reference level of 5 µg/dL is the 97.5th percentile of blood lead levels for children ages 1–5 in 2005–2008. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently uses this reference level to identify children with elevated blood lead levels.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Indicator Phy4.B: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL by race and Hispanic origin68 and poverty status, 2007–2010
Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL by race and Hispanic origin and poverty status, 2007–2010

* Estimate is considered unstable (relative standard error is greater than 30 percent but less than 40 percent).

** Estimate is considered unreliable (relative standard error is greater than 40 percent).

NOTE: The CDC currently uses 5 µg/dL as a reference level to identify children with elevated blood lead levels.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Indicator Phy5: Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2011
Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2011

NOTE: Data are available for 1978, 1983, 1989, and biennially since 1993. All data are weighted using the decennial Census that preceded the date of their collection.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development, American Housing Survey. Tabulated by Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Indicator Phy6: Rate of serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 by gender, 1980–2011
Rate of serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 by gender, 1980–2011

NOTE: Serious violent crimes include aggravated assault, rape, robbery (stealing by force or threat of violence), and homicide. Homicide data were not available for 2011 at the time of publication. The number of homicides for 2010 is included in the overall total for 2011. In 2010, homicides represented less than 1 percent of serious violent crime, and the total number of homicides of juveniles has been relatively stable over the last decade. Because of changes, data prior to 1992 are adjusted to make them comparable with data collected under the redesigned methodology. Some 2010 estimates have been revised since previous publication in America's Children due to updating of more recent homicide numbers. See Criminal Victimization, 2006, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=765.

SOURCE: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey and Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Indicator Phy7.A: Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010
Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010

NOTE: Visits are the initial visit to the emergency department for the injury. "Struck" denotes being struck by or against an object or person, "natural or environmental" denotes injuries caused by natural or environmental factors such as insect or animal bites, and "cut or pierced" denotes injuries caused by cutting or piercing from instruments or objects.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Indicator Phy7.B: Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by all causes and all injury causes, 1980–2011
Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by all causes and all injury causes, 1980–2011

NOTE: 2011 data are preliminary. Caution should be taken in interpreting injury death rates based on preliminary data, as these tend to be underestimated. See Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_06.pdf.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator Phy7.C: Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by cause of death, 2011
Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by cause of death, 2011

NOTE: 2011 data are preliminary. Caution should be taken in interpreting injury death rates based on preliminary data, as these tend to be underestimated. See Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_06.pdf.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Indicator Phy8.A: Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010
Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010

NOTE: Visits are the initial visit to the emergency department for the injury. "Struck" denotes being struck by or against an object or person, "cut or pierced" denotes injuries caused by cutting or piercing from instruments or objects, "overexertion" denotes excessive physical exercise or strenuous movements in recreational or other activities, and "natural or environmental" denotes injuries caused by natural or environmental factors such as insect or animal bites.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Indicator Phy8.B: Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by all causes and all injury causes and selected mechanisms of injury, 1980–2011
Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by all causes and all injury causes and selected mechanisms of injury, 1980–2011

NOTE: 2011 data are preliminary. Caution should be taken in interpreting injury death rates based on preliminary data, as these tend to be underestimated. 2011 data for "All motor vehicle traffic injuries" was not available at time of publication. See Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_06.pdf.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

56 Mannino, D.M., Caraballo, R., Benowitz, N., and Repace, J. (2001). Predictors of cotinine levels in U.S. children: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. CHEST, 120, 718–724.

55 Marano, C., Schober, S.E., Brody, D.J., and Zhang, C. (2009). Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among children and adolescents: United States, 2003–2006. Pediatrics, 124(5): 1299–1305.

68 For 2007–2010, the revised 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards for data on race and ethnicity were used. Persons could select one or more of five racial groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Included in the total but not shown separately are American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and "Two or more races." Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately but combined for reporting. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.