ChildStats.gov—Forum on Child and Family Statistics
faces of children
Home  |  About the Forum  |  Publications  |  Data Sources  |  Help
Search

America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2016

Physical Environment and Safety Figures

Figure 12: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current 8-hour ozone and 24-hour fine particulate matter (PM2.5) standards by race and Hispanic origin, 2000–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current 8-hour ozone and 24-hour fine particulate matter (PM2.5) standards by race and Hispanic origin, 2000–2014

NOTE: Percentages are based on the number of children, by race and ethnicity, living in counties where measured air pollution concentrations were higher than the levels of the 8-hour ozone and 24-hour fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards, at least once during the year. The Environmental Protection Agency periodically reviews air quality standards and may change them based on updated scientific findings. The indicator is calculated with reference to the current levels of the air quality standards for all years shown. Measuring concentrations above the level of a standard is not equivalent to violating the standard. The level of a standard may be exceeded on multiple days before the exceedance is considered a violation of the standard. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values have been recalculated based on updated data in the Air Quality System and the revised ozone air quality standard promulgated in October 2015. For more information on the air quality standard used in calculating these percentages, please see http://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Air Quality System.

Figure 13: Percentage of children ages 4–11 with blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1999–2000 through 2011–2012
Percentage of children ages 4–11 with blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) by race and Hispanic origin, selected years 1999–2000 through 2011–2012

NOTE: Cotinine levels are reported for nonsmoking children only (based on an individual's cotinine level of less than 10 ng/mL). "Any detectable cotinine" indicates blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Beginning in 2007, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey allows for reporting of both total Hispanics and Mexican Americans; however, estimates reported here are for Mexican Americans to be consistent with earlier years.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure 14: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2006 and 2007–2014
Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2006 and 2007–2014	x

* Estimate is considered unstable (relative standard error is greater than 30 percent but less than 40 percent).

NOTE: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently uses 5 µg/dL as a reference level to identify children with elevated blood lead levels. Estimates are based on eight years of data to improve reliability of the estimates. Persons of Mexican American origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1997 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Beginning in 2007, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey allows for reporting of both total Hispanics and Mexican Americans; however, estimates reported here are for Mexican Americans to be consistent with earlier years.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure 15: Serious violent victimization rates for youth ages 12–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 1993–2014
Serious violent victimization rates for youth ages 12–17 by race and Hispanic origin, 1993–2014

NOTE: Estimates from 1993 to 2013 are based on 3-year rolling averages centered on the year reported. For example, 1993 estimates were calculated by averaging 1992, 1993, and 1994 estimates. Estimates for 2014 are based on a 2-year average of 2013 and 2014 estimates. Serious violent victimizations include aggravated assault, rape, robbery, and homicide. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Homicide data are collected using the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR), for which Hispanic origin is not available. Homicide is included in estimates among Black and White youth, but the victim may have been Hispanic. Homicide data were not available for 2014 at the time of publication. The 2013 homicide estimates are included in the 2014 victimization estimates. In 2013, homicides represented less than 1 percent of serious violent crime. Estimates exclude series victimizations, defined as victimizations that are similar in type but occur with such frequency that a victim is unable to recall each individual event or to describe each event in detail. In 2013–2014, about 2 percent of non-fatal serious violent victimizations committed against youth ages 12–7 were series victimizations. Due to methodological changes in the 2006 National Crime Victimization Survey, use caution when comparing 2006 criminal victimization estimates to those of other years. See Criminal Victimization, 2007, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=764, for more information.

SOURCE: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey and Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Figure 16: Motor-vehicle-related (MVR) death rates among children ages 1–14 by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2014
Motor-vehicle-related (MVR) death rates among children ages 1–14 by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2014

NOTE: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1977 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure 17: Motor-vehicle-related (MVR) death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2014
Motor-vehicle-related (MVR) death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by race and Hispanic origin, 1999–2014

NOTE: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on race and Hispanic origin are collected separately and combined for reporting according to the 1977 Office of Management and Budget Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure PHY1: Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards, 1999–2014
Percentage of children ages 0–17 living in counties with pollutant concentrations above the levels of the current air quality standards, 1999–2014

NOTE: Values have been recalculated based on updated data in the Air Quality System and the revised ozone air quality standard promulgated in October 2015.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Air Quality System.

Figure PHY2.A: Percentage of children ages 4–11 with specified blood cotinine levels, selected years 1988–2012
Percentage of children ages 4–11 with specified blood cotinine levels, selected years 1988–2012

NOTE: Cotinine levels are reported for nonsmoking children only. "Any detectable cotinine" indicates blood cotinine levels at or above 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), the detectable level of cotinine in the blood in 1988–1994. The average (geometric mean) blood cotinine level in children living in homes where someone smoked was 1.0 ng/mL in 1988–1994 and in 2003–2006.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure PHY2.B: Percentage of children ages 0–6 living in homes where someone smoked
Percentage of children ages 0–6 living in homes where someone smoked

NOTE: A home where someone smoked regularly is defined as one in which smoking by a resident occurred 4 or more days per week.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure PHY3: Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2014
Percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable health-based drinking water standards, 1993–2014

NOTE: Revisions to the following standards were made between 2002 and 2006: disinfection byproducts (2002 for larger systems and 2004 for smaller systems), surface water treatment (2002), radionuclides (2003), and arsenic (included in the Chemical and radionuclide category, in 2006). No other revisions to the standards have taken effect during the period of trend data (beginning with 1993). Indicator values reflect the standards in place for each year depicted. Data have been revised since previous publication in America's Children. Values for years prior to 2014 have been recalculated based on updated data in the Safe Drinking Water Information System.

SOURCE: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Safe Drinking Water Information System.

Figure PHY4.A: Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, 2003–2006, 2007–2010 and 2011–2014
Percentage of children ages 1–5 with blood lead levels at or above 5 µg/dL, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, 2003–2006, 2007–2010 and 2011–2014

*Estimate is considered unstable (relative standard error is greater than 30 percent but less than 40 percent).

NOTE: The reference level of 5 µg/dL is the 97.5th percentile of blood lead levels for children ages 1–5 in 2005–2008. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently uses this reference level to identify children with elevated blood lead levels.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Figure PHY5: Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2013
Percentage of households with children ages 0–17 that reported housing problems by type of problem, selected years 1978–2013

NOTE: Data are available for 1978, 1983, 1989, and biennially since 1993. All data are weighted using the decennial Census that preceded the date of their collection.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development, American Housing Survey. Tabulated by Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Figure PHY6: Rate of serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 by gender, 1980–2014
Rate of serious violent crime victimization of youth ages 12–17 by gender, 1980–2014

NOTE: Serious violent crimes include aggravated assault, rape, robbery (stealing by force or threat of violence), and homicide. Homicide data were not available for 2014 at the time of publication. The number of homicides for 2013 is included in the overall total for 2014. In 2013, homicides represented less than 1 percent of serious violent crime, and the total number of homicides of juveniles has been relatively stable over the last decade. Because of changes, data prior to 1992 are adjusted to make them comparable with data collected under the redesigned methodology. Estimates may vary from those in previous publications due to updating of more recent homicide and victimization numbers. See Criminal Victimization, 2007, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=764, for more information.

SOURCE: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey and Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Supplementary Homicide Reports.

Figure PHY7.A: Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010
Emergency department visit rates for children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010

NOTE: Visits are the initial visit to the emergency department for the injury. "Struck" denotes being struck by or against an object or person, "natural or environmental" denotes injuries caused by natural or environmental factors such as insect or animal bites, and "cut or pierced" denotes injuries caused by cutting or piercing from instruments or objects.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Figure PHY7.B: Death rates among children ages 1–14 by all causes, all injury causes, and age group, 1980–2014
Death rates among children ages 1–14 by all causes, all injury causes, and age group, 1980–2014

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure PHY7.C: Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by cause of death, 2014 * Not a cause of death for children ages 1–4.
Death rates among children ages 1–4 and 5–14 by cause of death, 2014	* Not a cause of death for children ages 1–4.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

Figure PHY8.A: Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010
Emergency department visit rates for adolescents ages 15–19 by leading causes of injury, 2009–2010

NOTE: Visits are the initial visit to the emergency department for the injury. "Struck" denotes being struck by or against an object or person, "cut or pierced" denotes injuries caused by cutting or piercing from instruments or objects, "overexertion" denotes excessive physical exercise or strenuous movements in recreational or other activities, and "natural or environmental" denotes injuries caused by natural or environmental factors such as insect or animal bites.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

Figure PHY8.B: Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by all causes and all injury causes and selected mechanisms of injury, 1980–2014
Death rates among adolescents ages 15–19 by all causes and all injury causes and selected mechanisms of injury, 1980–2014

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.